Observational differences are present throughout the figures is, even to the untrained eye. First off the flower pictured in the replicate, Figure 2, has a hint of white on it. Meanwhile in the original, Figure 1, the pictured flower does not have a hint of white on it. Another difference is that the flower pictured in panel B of Figure 2 is appears larger, than the flower pictured in panel A of Figure 1. Also the flower pictured in panel A of Figure 2 appears larger, than the flower pictured in panel B of Figure 1. The shading color of the map in panel C of Figure 2 is red, which is different than the blue color used in panel C of Figure 1. More of China is also shaded in panel C of Figure 2 than in panel C of Figure 1. Another difference is that the panel labels, A, B and C, in Figure 2 are white with a black background, however in Figure 1 they are black with no background. Lastly in panels A and B of Figure 1 there are arrows indicating location of important structures on the plant and flower, meanwhile in Figure 2 these arrows are absent.
Human activities have increased the levels of most greenhouse gases. Nitrous oxide is released through soil cultivation, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production and biomass burning. Methane is produced through decomposition of landfill waste, agriculture, and manure from livestock. And carbon dioxide is released from deforestation, land use changes and burning fossil fuels. When these gases are released there is no easy way to reverse the effects; for example, carbon dioxide can take hundreds of thousands of years to dissipate through chemical weathering or rock formation. The main way carbon dioxide leaves the atmosphere is by being absorbed into the oceans which causes many problems. Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases and is a huge issue that has huge consequences.
Optogenetics refers to the biological technique which involves the use of light to control neurons. These neurons are genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. Precise neural control is achieved by using channelrhodopsin, halorhodopsin, and other similar opsins that function as light-gated ion channels. Channelrhodopsins excite neurons while halorhodopsin inhibits them. This method has to act and operate precisely and quickly in order to allow addition or deletion of specific activity patterns within cells. In order to keep up with optical control, reporter proteins are used, enabling the fused fluorescent proteins to detect the selected neurons. This advancement is now giving humanity the ability to alter the activity of specific types of neurons. Depression, a huge problem in the U.S, for example can be possibly treated with optogenetics. MRI images have suggested parts the brains of people who have depression look different than those without it. Since dopamine and serotonin have shown to be important in cognition, motivation, drug addiction and psychiatric disorders, stimulation by LED light at the wavelength of blue light to activate channelrhodopsin expressed in targeted dopamine neurons in the mid-brain should be extensively studied. That is, it is now technically possible to study what the activation and deactivation of specific neurotransmitters in this part of the brain does.
CD44 is a cell surface adhesion receptor that is highly expressed in many cancers and appears to regulate metastasis. Its recruitment to the cell surface and its interaction with extracellular matrix ligands promote the migration and invasion processes involved in metastases. Therefore, elevated levels of soluble CD44 in the serum of cancer patients can be used as a marker for the existence of tumor cells. The over-expression of this receptor is particularly seen in breast cancer cells. This discovery may allow for specific cancer cells to be detected rather than invading healthy cells through chemotherapy to get rid of defective muted ones.
Cells are normally searching for bacterial invaders and potential tumor cells, if they recognize one, they induce an immune response. However, healthy T-cell “checkpoints” can be muted by other proteins on the cell surface and can in turn weaken immune responses. This phenomenon is often seen in tumor cells where muted T-cell checkpoint molecules are expressed. To overcome this problem without the need of radiation, nontoxic nanoparticles can be used to sensitize the immune system. New antigens can be exposed to T cells which can prime those T cells to target other tumor cells that carry them as well. In order to get past the immune system, they need to be the appropriate size because small particles are more likely to get around macrophages. Prior to inducing them into the body, they have to be coated with polyethylene glycol shell which can help them survive longer in the bloodstream.
The genus canis has showed an interesting phenomenon with the discovery of the “coywolf”; a hybrid canid exhibiting mostly Canis lupus and Canis dirus genes but also Canis lupus familiaris genes. Many have gone as far as to calling the coywolf a new species. However, this assumption might be a bit of a stretch. Genetic tests show this is not the first time intermixing takes place. The eastern coyote for example, is also a mix of the three. In my opinion, that is because coyotes, domestic dogs, and wolves are the same species “that would very much prefer not to breed with each other”. The fact that they have continuously mated with one another throughout history and created viable offspring suggests they are indeed the same species. This has resulted in genetic swapping and gene variations amongst the three. The gene differences may result in sexual “preferences” where wolves would rather mate with a wolf, coyotes with coyotes, and so on. Still, preference is not enough to deem them three separate species. “Gene flow continues in all directions, keeping things mixed up, and leading to continual variation over their range, with no discrete boundaries." Instead of being called closely related species, it would be more accurate to call them subspecies.
The two main goals of this methods project was for us to practice creating the methods with our legend and to describe to our partner what you have done for them to try to replicate the work you have done. We had to take pictures of the plant and do some research to find where they were from. I have chosen the Camellia Japonica Jarvis Red because this plant really caught my eyes since it looked like the traditional flower of South Korea (Where I am originally from). In my methods, I wrote that it looked like the traditional Korean flower so if my partner researched how that looked like, it was very easy to find at the Durfee conservatory. This project was overall very interesting.
The location of the bottom bloom in part B is congruent in both figures, but the amount of blooms contained in the images were not. The differences in distance from the flowers arose because ideal distance was not detailed in the methods. In part C there were two different world maps used due to methods of finding the first world map not being detailed in the methods. The world map originally used may not be available online anymore. The color by which the countries were highlighted was included in the methods, but there are many different shades of turquoise on Inkscape which accounts for the difference in shade. The caribbean was also highlighted in figure 2, but this could have been due to a misunderstanding of which countries constituted central america. Overall, the methods did yield a congruent figure with minor discrepancies.