Methods Paragraph 3

Submitted by rmirley on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 21:19

Finally, the multipanel figure was constructed. There were three main panels consisting of a picture of the full plant, a picture of a close up of the flower, and the figure showing the plant’s origin. The multipanel figure was set up so that there was a long image on the left side and two stacked images on the right side. The long image on the left, labeled A, was the photo of the entire plant. The photo in the top right, labeled B, was the close up photo of the flower itself. The bottom right photo, labeled C, was the figure that shows the plant’s origin. For the labels A, B, and C, the letters were in the top left of the photo they were labeling, in a white box. The letters were in 72 font size and only occupied a small amount of space. 

 

Parietal-Premotor Cortex Relationship

Submitted by drosen on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 20:54

The human brain is composed of several segmented compartments that are responsible for a wide variety of functions. While individualized,  complex behavior, such as movement was theorized to be multifactorial, involving communication between several areas to coordinate actions. In the paper discussed, the connection between intent, movement and the predicted response to this action were all observed and analyzed via electrical stimulation during brain surgery. In summary, stimulation of the parietal lobe induced an intent and increased stimuli lead to a pseudo movement, where the patient believed they had moved and even interpreted sensation as if they had, however, no movement occured. In contrast, stimulation of the premotor cortex elicited movement, however the patient’s were completely unaware of these actions and they did not express any desire to move. The author infers that movement is an efferent response or plan created by the parietal region of the brain that is then communicated to the premotor cortex, which carries out this action independently of predicted consequences.  

Lift in relation to drag.

Submitted by drosen on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 20:08

In order to achieve elevation and forward motion, or flight, birds are able to manipulate air pressure to utilize a force known as lift while mitigating the opposing force to lift, known as drag. Lift is generated by the redirection of air to the ventral side of the wing. This occurs due to the streamlined and asymmetric structure of the wing. The accumulation of this pressure creates a natural gradient, which then pushes against the wing in an effort to restore equilibrium. This movement of fluid generates lift and the amount of lift generated is secondary to the SA of the wing as well as the speed of the air passing through the feather. In addition, lift can be artificially enhanced in slower wind speeds by increasing the angle of attack or the angle of the wing. By doing this, the SA of the wing is increased, which directly increases lift, however, this also increases drag and after a certain angle the drag will overwhelm the total lift, causing the bird to stall. This phenomenon is also utilized and is commonly used for precision landing that does not require a gradual decline in speed.

Loss of flight, an evolutionary perspective.

Submitted by drosen on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 19:47

Flight is typically regarded as an evolutionary marvel and a defining characteristic of birds, however, there have been dozens of species that have thrived by evolving a more terrestrial lifestyle. Flightlessness has typically evolved in environments where flight, and the various tradeoffs necessary to both achieve and sustain this, are a total net-negative in terms of fitness or survivability. Some of these consequences of flight include the the high cost during development, the morphological trade offs necessary to have a body that can efficiently flight and the increased metabolic needs to sustain flight. Environments where flight would not be beneficial are places with low rates of predation or low competition for resources. It could also evolve due to the lack of necessity, as there are terrestrial niches that would favor larger size and beaks (predatory role).  Dodo bird, Giant Moa and Phorusrhacos all lost flight  (lack of predation, increased E to size, predatory role) specifically.  These species seem to exhibit Neoteny or retention of juvenile characteristics as opposed to complete recession of wing development as they still have a not well ossified sternum and obtuse scapula-coracoid joint.  Also, developmental heterochrony, which shortens the embryonic process of wing development

Theropod Origin of Birds

Submitted by drosen on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 19:39

The discovery of archaeopteryx 2 years after Darwin published his theory of evolution initiated the argument that birds were of theropod descent. This creature, while reptilian in nature, had wings with asymmetrical pattern (flight) as well as a larger skull which presumably housed a larger brain.  The prevailing alternative hypothesis states that thecodonts are potential ancestors  due to their large, wing-like scales found on their dorsal aspects. Following this discovery, multiple fossils of feathered dinosaurs were uncovered including sinosauropteryx,  protarchaeopteryx, caudipteryx as well as several microraptor skeletons that all contributed their own unique clues which supported the theropod descent theory.

Protein Complexes

Submitted by benjaminburk on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 18:50

In larger protein complexes proteins are bound together encoded into precise binding interfaces. Specificity and affinity are the foundational aspects that make these binding interfaces possible. However there are stills problems that can arise within the system. Large disordered proteins are to still capable of binding to various sites along well-structures polypetides. The reasoning behind this anomoly is because of the large opposite net charge of the two proteins. Sequencing nalysis of multiple structures shows that this interaction occurs abbundantly throughout nature.

Draft #4, week 5, Hofmann Ch. 13 notes

Submitted by vvikhrev on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 17:26

This chapter was on posters. Design the poster based on your research question, include images/visuals, and focus only on the main points from each section. It is important to remember that just like with many other visual representations (ex: advertisements, movie posters, powerpoints, etc), the poster is supposed to grab the readers attention, keep them interested and most importantly, provide a concise overview of your work in your absence. Think about all the posters hanging in the Morrill building! A poster has the same sequence format as your research paper but it doesn't include the discussion. And word count is less. They focus on the most important main parts and attempts to present them visually. When you present, you can expand further on your research and state your conclusion clearly.
"Aim for 20% text, 40% graphics and 40% blank space" (pg. 194). The abstract and conclusion are considered the most important sections of the poster therefore they shoud be placed in the correct spaces, top left and bottom right corners, respectively. It could help the audience if you number each panel, arrange the materials in columns, and maintain a consistent style. It is best to use a white or very light background and nothing too extravagant because that could be overbearing and distractive for your audience. Page 196 provides a guideline of how big (or small) our font should be on the poster. Your main objective is to edit the text youre preparing to a very concise language. As always, the title should grab your readers attention, the abstract should be short (50-100 words in this case), and omit unnecessary details in your introduction. Beacuse posters are displayed for a while after your presentation, the introduction (ad the rest of the sections on your poster) should be self-explanatory.

Draft #3, week 5, Bio class notes

Submitted by vvikhrev on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 17:07

what is renin, it enters blood stream and cleaves the angiotenisin from the liver, to produce Ang2
ANG2 increases efferent arterioles, increases resistant to outflow of blood in the glomerulus a dn decrease resistance in afferent?
it also goes to the brain and causes you to be thirsty
ANG2 causes production of aldosterone in adrenal gland
decrease in volume = decrease in pressure = stimulation of cells in macule densa = increases enzyme that cleaves ANG to make ANG1 that goes to the lungs = ACE in the lungs converts ANG1 to ANG2 = acts on juxtaglomelular apparatus and acts on adrenal cortex to stimulate aldosterone release = act on nuclear receptors that controls expressure of Na+/K+ ATPase in these cells (pumping Na+ out of the filtrate and K+ enters)
get more hypotonic filtrate in the DCT
brings tonicity of filtrate to 50
they are the 2 hormones that work in combination to conserve water
pressure active transport of solutes, selective water permeability = how does this system work on its own
aldosterone controls pumps
vasopressin controls water permeability at the right spot at the right time

Methods Intro Draft

Submitted by crmckenzie on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 16:46

    Scientific writing is a skill all scientists must possess in order to communicate their research and findings in an effective manner. The Methods section of a scientific paper describes the process the author went through to uncover their findings and to create their figures. This project was primarily focused on the concept of replication and the ability to reproduce a figure using a peer’s Methods section. The assignment called for the creation of a multi panel figure of a plant found on the University of Massachusetts Amherst campus that included a picture of the plant, a close up of a leaf or flower, and a geographical figure indicating the plant’s natural origin. The figure created for this experiment was about the Cattleya ‘War Paint’ orchid. The figure has three panels. The first is the full picture of the plant, the second an up close picture of one of its flowers, and the third a map of its origin, which includes Mexico and several countries in Central and South America. This figure was then replicated using the Methods section below to test the clarity and effectiveness of the section.

 

Week 5 Intro to Methods Project PP

Submitted by jngomez on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 15:41

The primary objective in this assignment is to obtain a diverse set of skills when composing a scientific literature piece. To learn about the aspects in writing and composing scientific writing entries. In particular, we focused on the methods section part of the composure. The methods section in a piece of scientific writing is an important aspect of an experiment because it illustrates to other prospering scientist what they carried out to obtain the results they desired. Every experimental procedure has an idea and hypothesis. Their method of proof could either fail or succeed. However, the primary objective is to be as detailed as possible so that others could replicate it and obtain similar results. A multi-panel figure was created to illustrate the plant species of our choice and it includes a detailed picture of the plant, the plant species as a whole, and a high-quality map depicting the origin of the species. For this project I choose Euphorbia pulcherrima euphorbiaceae, which is a plant found in Mexico and Guatemala.  

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