The video “Great Human Odyssey” is an informative video that walks the viewer through important discoveries made throughout history that help construct the timeline of homo sapien evolution. The overall message of the video is that Homo sapiens as a species are extremely adaptive and are the only species in the world that has been able to cover the entire globe and conquer all types of climates and terrains. Also the video drives home the idea that this adaptive nature is what allowed Homo sapiens to avoid mass extinction, a fate that wiped their ancestors out and pushed them as a species to the brink. I enjoyed the examples of current groups that live like the ancestors, for example the Sans Bushmen who use the “persistent hunting” technique in order to hunt prey, this is the same technique scientists believe that the Sans’ ancestors used when hunting game. I did find that at some points the video was a little bit dry and very heavy with information. But overall I found the video interesting and enjoyable.
We were interested in determining if there was any correlation between how many arthropods were in rooms and how far away the Morrill Greenhouses are. We found a very small insignificant correlation and a lot of our quantitative data deviated from the average. This probably means that there are other variables that play a role in how many arthropods (and spider webs) you can find in various windowsils. However, this proved to be a very interesting study because we can now compare our results with the results of the other groups that looked at other variables besides distance from the greenhouses such as temperature and distance to the reptile rooms. If we had more time, we would be interested to look at how outside temperaure compared to indoor temperature affects the arthropod count indoors. Also it would be helpful to know if room use also has any correlation with arthropod count in windowsills.
We were interested in determining if there was any correlation between how many arthropods were in rooms and how far away the Morrill Greenhouses are. We found barely any correlation and a lot of our quantitative data deviated from the mean. This probably means that there are other variables that play a role in how many arthropods (and spider webs) you can find in various classes. However, this proved to be a very interesting study because we can now compare our results with the results of the other groups that looked at other variables besides distance from the greenhouses such as temperature and distance to the reptile rooms. If we had more time, we would be interested in looking at how outside temperaure compared to indoor temperature affects the arthropod count indoors. Also it would be helpful to know if room use also has any correlation with arthropod count in windowsills.
After making the correct diagnosis, the patient can participate in several types of therapeutic treatments and clinical trials. There are several ongoing and completed trials for treating retinitis pigmentosa with gene therapy, drugs, oxygen therapy, stem cell transplantation and even acupuncture, that can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov. For instance, in a study performed by Rubens C. Siqueira, patients with severe retinitis pigmentosa were treated with an “intravitreal injection of autologous bone marrow stem cells” and evaluated monthly for an entire year with OCT and ERG. Results revealed a “1-line improvement in best-corrected visual acuity was measured in 4 patients 1 week after injection and was maintained throughout follow-up” and no detectable ERG responses. They concluded that since there were no adverse/toxic effects, it would be probable to conduct and investigate more types autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapies (Siqueira, 2011).
In another 2011 study, a RHO suppression and RHO replacement gene therapy was administered on a mouse model (P347S) with RHO-linked autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Both 5-day-old and adult mice were injected with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors that were used to “deliver an RNA interference (RNAi)-based rhodopsin suppressor and a codon-modified rhodopsin replacement gene resistant to suppression due to nucleotide alterations at degenerate positions over the RNAi target site” (Millington, 2011). By suppressing and replacing the mutated photoreceptors, the researchers predicted that they should function similarly to wild-type photoreceptors. They found that the ONL completely disappeared in untreated mice (the control group with the disease) and mice that were treated rhodopsin was expressed in the ONL. ERG comparisons between both groups showed significant improved responses when both types of vectors were administered. They also concluded that this type of approach can possibly pertain to any patient with RHO-linked regardless of the mode of action of a particular RHO mutation in future clinical studies (Millington, 2011). Consequently, retinitis pigmentosa is uncurable, however it seems that gene therapy could provide some type of solution.
Siqueira, R C, et al. “Intravitreal Injection of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells for Hereditary Retinal Dystrophy: a Phase I Trial.” Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 31 June 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293313?dopt=Abstract.
Millington-Ward, Sophia, et al. “Suppression and Replacement Gene Therapy for Autosomal Dominant Disease in a Murine Model of Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.” Molecular Therapy, vol. 19, no. 4, 11 Jan. 2011, pp. 642–649. NCBI, doi:10.1038/mt.2010.293.
There are several barriers to finding cures and treatments of retinitis pigmentosa. Based on the information presented above, this is true because retinitis pigmentosa comes in many specific forms of inheritance, however there are possible modern treatments that could overcome these barriers. Diagnosis would begin with genetic tests (highly recommended) such as applying and sending a DNA sample to “eyeGENE” to find the genes associated with the disease, severity and the progression of the disease (https://eyegene.nih.gov/). Doing so also allows the researchers to provide the patient with possible recruitment into clinical trials. An ERG would measure the retinal electrical activity in response to light (Facts About, 2014). An optical coherence tomography (OCT) would be used to take detailed images of the retina in order to see how much of the retina is affected and to provide a better case in treating the patient’s retinitis pigmentosa.
Title: Effect of Proximity to Greenhouse on Arthropod Presence in Morrill Windowsills
The University of Massachusetts Amherst Morrill Greenhouses have a variety of plant species and arthropods that can have an effect on the presence of arthropods in rooms inside the adjacent Morrill science buildings. Having more knowledge on the indoor arthropod microinvertebrate climate can influence future environmental or health implications. There are few similar studies that have been done on residential microclimates. In this study we collected the quantitative data on spiders, flies, insects and spider webs in window sills/ledges to examine if the distance from the greenhouses has an effect on arthropod presence. The further the room is from the greenhouses, the less arthropods will be present.
Collect quantitative data on arthropods (spiders, insects and flies) and spider webs once per week for two weeks.
Find distances between rooms observed and Morrill Greenhouses using Google Earth Pro.
Record and tabulate results.
The bar graphs in Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 show similar patterns in the periphyton populations found in the three locations between week one and week two. Location 1 had the least amount of periphyton with an average of 13.66 the first week and 17.67 the second week. Location 2 had the most with an average of 94.01 week one and 79 week two. And the third location falls in the middle with an average of 20.33 week one and 54.33 week two.
The pie charts in Fig. 4 and Fig. 6 show the distributions of the different types of periphyton found at the three locations. The distributions for location 1 are similar between both weeks with the difference of no oval periphyton found the second week. Location 2 shows more equal diversity between thin clear rectangles, small rectangles and slivers in the first week than in the second week where the majority is thin clear rectangles. And for location 3 there is a shift for less thin clear rectangles and more small rectangles and slivers.
Comparative anatomists have discovered numerous intermediates between this most primitive type of eye and the vertebrate eye, such as: eye cups; pinhole eyes; camera-type eyes with a single lens; reflecting mirror eyes; and compound eyes with numerous ommatidia, all of which lends support to Darwin’s theory.
A monophyletic origin for the eye is supported by the observation that all metazoans share the same visual pigment, rhodopsin
The observation that Pax 6 homologs of both mammals and insects are essential for eye morphogenesis led to the idea that Pax 6 might be the universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis and evolution
The protein-coding regions of Pax 6 are highly conserved in evolution, as are some of the regulatory sequences in the promoters and enhancers.
In the 1970’s Mexico responded to a global oil shortage by increasing its export of oil, and from this began a prosperous time of rapid economic expansion. Once there was a global oil surplus in the 80’s, Mexico had to quickly adjust for the lost income and abruptly change the rate they were borrowing money, which left them with many international debts that they could no longer pay. Match this dependence on an export with falling value with a corrupt single party system of government and the outcome is failing nation. The story is similar in Venezuela, including political corruption and single export dependence. US corporations take advantage of troubled governments by moving factories to these countries and paying thousands of workers very low wages. This leads to more economic disparity and thus, lower living standards for these countries while the corporations take their business to places like the US and Europe.
Women in African societies are in a subordinate class, with little to no education and are assumed to only take care of the home and food. In rural settings, women often work 10 to 12 hours a day. Because their husbands are often away working for small wages all day, they must provide all of the food and childcare. In the urban setting a woman’s role is different. Educated women can find success in entrepreneurial endeavours, but self-employment is almost the only time they will be working outside the service sector. Even with an education most women won’t find work other than that of a cleric or a secretary. Uneducated women are often restricted to unskilled low wage jobs such as making clothing.