One source found state that Whey protein can potentially be the treatment for type 2 diabetes. The main reasoning behind this statement is that it can manipulate the gut function in order to secret incretin and reduce gastric emptying which are key components for type 2 diabetes. Whey protein stimulates beta cells to secrete these gut peptides, to include incretin, which then leads to the slower metabolizing and slower gastric emptying once an individual has consumed their meal, this is because it suppresses appetite and effects the gut-brain axis and hypothalamus, which is responsible for controlling hunger and homeostasis, which includes these peptides (Mignone et al. 2015). In addition, in a clinical trial in which men with type 2 diabetes were given 15g of Whey protein, the consumption of this protein was proven to improve glycaemia after means were consumed, increase secretion of insulin. This trial proves the suggestions made by Mignone through its evidence and direct relevance of the valid conclusions made (King et al. 2018).
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A study on a healthy 27-year-old patients who has taken a reportedly safe concentration of Whey protein was found to have a profound case of jaundice due to his protein and creatine intake, therefore linking back to a kidney malfunction. The laboratory tests had concluded elevated bilirubin concentrations in his liver which is the yellow pigmentation due to the breakdown of hemoglobin. The individual had been using Whey protein 4 weeks and creatine 9 weeks, prior to the arrival of the symptoms. They concluded that the supplements were the cause of his kidney malfunction. I do not believe this case study has sufficient evidence or relevance in the represented topic. One reason being that it is a single subject which leaves error to be great. Another reason being that he had been taking other supplements that could have caused his profound case of jaundice. Their assumption is not fully backed by a vast trial but rather a single case (Whitt et al. 2008).
Another clinical trial was tested to show the impact of Whey protein intake on renal function. In a trial with 1624 women, a group with normal renal function and another with mild renal efficiency, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was used to estimate the kidney functionality and efficiency. This study was conducted over a 11-year span to further give valid conclusions. In conclusion of the 11-year trial, they found the GFR to be 0.25 mL/min per 1.73 m2 per 10g increase in protein intake as oppose to 1.14 mL/min per 1.73 m2. This conclusion states that high protein intake does not associate with a reduced renal functionality in women with normal renal function. However, it does increase the declination functionality rate of women who already have reduced renal function. This trial does have sufficient evidence and relevant to the represented topic because it shows the long-term effects of an increase protein intake on kidney function. The assumptions are valid because the trial size was large and over a long-time span which gives a more accurate conclusion (Knight et al. 2003).
Another source set out to prove the improvements in health in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A scientific trial conducted stated that cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have side effects such as a weakened immune system and malnutrition. In the study, 42 cancer patients who received chemotherapy were blindly split into an experimental, 23 patients, and control group, 19 patients. It was shown that the experimental group that was given 42g of Whey protein every day for 12 weeks, had improved nutritional status and a boosted immune system than the control group which did not receive it. I believe that this piece of evidence is relevant and representative for the benefits of Whey protein, and even though the size of the trial groups were not large, they had enough data to give a conclusion. The assumptions based on the evidence, and clinical trials are valid because the conclusion of the trial showed the physical improvements of these individuals when compared to those who did not get treated with the Whey protein (Bumrungpert et al. 2018).
Red blood cells are comprised of Hemoglobin, which contains 4 subunits with a Heme group in each subunit. Each Heme group contains 1 iron atom, and each iron atom can bind to one oxygen molecule. Having her anemic condition, she has a low red blood cell count. Due to this, each breath she takes will only allow a small amount of oxygen to be connected to the hemoglobin. The respiratory system is key to promoting the homeostasis of the body, involving pH stability in humans due to O2 intake and CO2 release. Development of anemia in people with Crohn’s disease is often seen due to the low iron levels caused by bloody stools. Her body would be severely weakened by the oxygen deficiency, likely causing her shortness of breath. Oxygen deprived cells within the body cannot perform as they normally do, and thus it would be much harder for her to breathe than regularly.
The respiratory system has two forms of respiration: external respiration, which is the exchanging of gases between the lungs and the bloodstream, and internal respiration, which is the exchanging of gases between the bloodstream and the body tissues. Inside the lungs, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide waste. Oxygen then binds to the hemoglobin component of the blood and is pumped into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body. When the blood cells become deoxygenated, they then assist with transporting carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be released. When there is a lack of red blood cells in the body, our body isn’t able to transfer oxygen efficiently leading to many symptoms. When the brain doesn’t receive sufficient amount of oxygen, you may develop nausea, which our patient has demonstrated. Also our body cells need oxygen to produce energy. However, due to the lack of oxygen circulating in our patient’s body, their body cells are not able to produce a lot of energy, thus resulting in their symptoms of fatigue and weakness.
In a normal respiratory system with average amounts of blood/blood pressure, the lungs function as oxygen intake centers for the body, as well as excretion of wastes, such as carbon dioxide. Without this constant cycle of intake and expulsion, humans would have a buildup of leftovers that form during the conversion of the nourishment we take in. The lungs do this by readily changing their volume to either force air from the environment in or out through the mouth. The oxygen within the air is then exchanged within the most miniscule parts of the lung, known as alveoli, via the hemoglobin within the red blood cells. Carbon dioxide is then put in its place, allowing blood cells to constantly perform this process and supply the body with the oxygen it need. This monitoring of the carbon dioxide levels within the blood also helps to control blood pH, which has a number of implications within the metabolic activities of other organs and tissues.
*Christmas Tree Picture* This is a christmas tree covered in colorful string lights. The Battery in this circuit would be the wall outlet in which the lights plug into. Each individual bulb in the series acts as an individual resistor. The direction of the electrical field moved through the wire, into each bulb and once it reaches the last bulb it loops back and meets with the plug in the outlet. As for the high and low potential areas, the high potential area is the beginning of the wire leaving the socket heading toward the lights and the low potential are is on the other side of the wire that is leaving the last bulb of the series and meeting the plug back at the outlet. The current is moving from the outlet, through the lights and ending back at the outlet traveling from high potential to low potential. The electrons and the force would be moving in the opposite direction of the current. This explaination is for a physics unit in which we are learning about circuits including voltage, resistors, and the flow of current.
Their physical and anatomical characteristics are tightly connected to their behavior. Being in a semiarid desert environment, their major concern is finding shelter from the hot sun and sand. They are able to use their long claws to burrow into the soil during the day when temperatures are too hot. Once the sun goes down and temperatures drop, their concern switches to finding food and water. Their large sensitive eyes and ears give them the ability to successfully hunt at night as well as to evade any predators, such as snakes. Their large ears contain membranes much similar looking to a tragus in bats to keep sand out of their ears when they burrow, as well as increase their ability to pick up vibrations of predators and prey through the sand. They lure prey such as grasshoppers using their white haired tipped tail which simulated a plant. Once within sight, the American Rhingon uses its claws to quickly grab and hold onto its prey. American Rhingon’s are able to stay hydrated by using their elongated noses, much like an elephant, to consume dew that accumulates on the shrubs after the dramatic temperature changes during night and day. This species has a reduced number of sweat glands that has been adapted to conserve water. Since they have a limited number of sweat glands to keep cool, they apply a coat of saliva on their body using their tail as a brush to spread the saliva
Engaging in physical activity for me personally was not challenging at all. Since elementary school I have always been on sports teams and enjoyed working out at the gym. Starting this activity was not a challenge for me because I have already been physically active and include physical activity in my daily schedule. Whenever I sign up for classes for the next semester, I always edit it and put in time slots when I have to go to the gym, I treat it as another class that I have to take. I am also in ROTC and have to wake up early in the morning Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays to do Physical Training which also helps me get the recommended amount of physical activity in. I’ve always had the motivation to go to the gym and get into shape, however the only variable that would cause me to not go to the gym and get physical activity is that sometimes I am way too busy to go to the gym, I genuinely think that I cannot make time for the gym with these circumstances because I wake up very early 3 times a week, before the gym opens, and have to prioritize academics over physical training. I believe this is acceptable in my case because I am very active compared to most people.
My motivation comes from the goals I have set for myself, both short and long term. In the short term, I want to look good and feel good about myself, to not be self-conscious, in the long term, I want to be physically fit, so I can have a healthy life and be able to be physically active with my kids, if I have kids. I’d also like to go to Ranger School when I graduate college and one thing that is essential to passing the school is being physically fit. Having these goals are what keep me going when I don’t want to go to the gym or get out of bed, knowing that the little things you do day by day, such as going to the gym, is what is going to make a big impact in the long run.
In the end, I am very proud of myself for what I have been able to accomplish. I am not a body builder, but I do think I am overall one of the most fit people my friends know. I have had many people come to me asking if I can help them train or lose weight, and though I don’t have much experience with weight loss, I take pride when my friends ask me to help them. I also try to convince friends to come workout with me because it’d good for you, it’s fun, and you feel great.