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Ants PP

Submitted by lgiron on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 22:27


         Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a wide variety of insects. One in particular standing out from the rest, taking a human characteristic and imbedding it in themselves, heroism. The termite eating African Matabele ant, or the Megaponera analis, embrace the sayings “never leave a fallen comrade”, providing purpose and value of each individual ant. During invasion of termite nest in an effort to feed, many ants sustain a certain level of injuries, which they have adapted to overcome. If injured, they are shown to bring back these injured ants to their colony and provide aid for their recovery. In a study in 2017, these ants have been observed carrying all non-fatally injured ants back to their nesting areas in an effort to save the injured. In an experiment, scientists removed legs of some ants and notices a spike in response of their comrades. Their comrades quickly returning them to the artificial nest, where they began to clean the wound using their mouths for up to 4 minutes. This cleaning is believed to clear any dirt in an infection prevention effort, their saliva also believed to contain antimicrobial chemicals. Ants treated are shown to have a 90% 24-hour survival rate as oppose to a 20% survival rate if left untreated.


Submitted by lgiron on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 21:26


            The differences between the size of the individual images, figure, and size of margins in the replicate figure and the original can be due to a variety of reason. However, the major cause can be due to the device used to capture the image and the imagery software used to create the figure itself. The size of the individual images will vary based on the device used to take the images. Whether taken on a professional photographic device or a mobile phone, as well as the make and model of the devices, the dimensions will be different. The original images were taken by an IPhone 8. Once on desktop or laptop, the imagery software used to create the figure will cause differences. There are several imagery software’s both online and as a downloadable software such as Photoshop that can be used to create the figure. Each software has a different setting and different capabilities that determine the size and dimensions of the images that are used to create the figure. This will account for the size differential of the individual images, figures, and size of margins. The original figure was created with an online website. In addition, the replicators knowledge and experience using this software is a factor in the replication.

            The absence of labels for each image in the figure can be contributed to the lack of directions or clarification in the methods. Unclear directions lead to confusion which will lead the replicator to leave absent. Similar to differences in the size and margins, lack of knowledge and experience can cause the replicator to leave out the labels if they do not know how to add them. These two contributions lead to the absence of the labels for each image in the figure.


Submitted by lgiron on Tue, 02/20/2018 - 20:52

There were some very significant differences between my figure and the figure that was replicated of mine. The first significant difference is the size of figure itself. The original figure being 2000x2000 pixel and the replicate being 300x200 pixels. In addition to the whole figure itself, each image itself in the multi-panel figure has much smaller dimensions in the replicate. Visually, size of both overall figure and individual images have a great difference. There was also much more white space between each image in the replicate than in the original figure that was used to divide each image in the figure.

Another major difference was the labeling of each image. In the replicate, there was an absence of labels in each image to distinguish them from one another. Meanwhile in the original, it contained image labeled, A, B, and C on the upper left-hand corner of each image to identify each.

A third major difference would be the difference in the images themselves. For image “A”, there was a difference in the angle or orientation at which the image was taken, both vertically and horizontally. Vertically, the replicate was taken at a much higher angle, taken at a close birds-eye-view. Horizontally, the replicate was taken in a direct line of sight as oppose to the original which was taken further left. The distance of the image taken relative to the plant was also greater in the replicate. For image “B” there were angle and distance differences as well. The vertical image angle of the replicate was directly above the flower, the original was lower in angle. The horizontal image angle is most noticeable. The replicate was taken at a horizontal 90-degree difference than the original. The distance, similar to image “A” was further in the replicate than the original.

The range map differences were quite noticeable as well, including the size, range, and color. The size of the range map in the replicate is much smaller as they included both North America and South America whole. In the original, it is focused primarily on South America where the plant range is limited to. The range of the plant on the replicate includes most of the Caribbean to include Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. The original does not extend the range through the Caribbean. The range map itself in the replicate has a white background as oppose to the original which has the original light grey color background. 


Submitted by lgiron on Mon, 02/19/2018 - 19:51

            In sub-Saharan Africa, there are ants that take a human characteristic into their own, heroism. The African Matabele ant, or the Megaponera analis, show that no matter the size of the colony, no ant is replaceable. These termite eating ants sustain a certain level of injuries while on the mission to college termites to feed on, they have adapted to not only tend to the injured but bring them back to their nest and aid their recovery. In a study in 2017, these ants were seen to carry all ants who sustained non-fatal injuries back to their nesting area. However, this is not the full extent of the heroism. In an experiment, they collected six ant colonies and experimentally removed legs which spiked the response of its comrade ants who brought it back to the artificial nest. Once in the nest they began to clean the pen wound with their mouth for up to 4 minutes. This showed to have a 90% 24-hour survival rate if treated with the licking as opposed to only a 20% survival if the researchers had not allowed for this extra aid in the injured ant. It is believed that the licking of the wound is to clear away any dirt to prevent infection and to apply antimicrobial chemicals. 


Submitted by lgiron on Sat, 02/17/2018 - 10:05

Scientists were originally set out to determine the migration patterns of the northern saw-whet owl in southern Ohio, luring them with audio-recordings to attach a tracking band to them. However, upon a closer look on them, they are able to spot something more fascinating. Owls are known for their large eyes and keen sense of hearing to be able to spot prey and predators during the night time due to their nocturnal habits, and have been able to successfully thrive due to this evolutionary adaptation. Taking a closer look at the owl, if one parts the feathers of its ear opening, as it does not have an external ear structure, one can see the eyeball of the owl. This can be achieved due to the enlarged eyeball and the unusually large earhole that the owl possesses. The eye makes up about 5 percent of their body mass, and their earholes are un-proportionally large which made it easy for the scientists to take a look at the eyeball from the internal ear. I believe this is one of the most important adaptations an owl has evolved to since their sense of hearing and eyesight have to be very good to be able to live in the environment that they do and in the hours that they are active. Most owls thrive in forests and hunt during the night which make it easy for one to not see a branch, hit one and get injured. Knowing one can access the eyeball through the year could aid us in understanding more about the eyeball of an owl as well. 


Submitted by lgiron on Wed, 02/14/2018 - 17:55

            There were some very significant differences between my figure and the figure that was replicated of mine. The first significant difference is the size of each image in the multi-panel figure. There was much more space between each image in the replica than in my original. The second noticeable thing was the size of the image themselves. Along with the margins, the size of the images themselves were much larger than in my original which can be effected by the method of which the images were put together. Another major difference was the labeling of each image. There were no labels in the replica image while the original had the images labeled, A, B, and C on the upper left-hand corner of each image.  Smaller differences were notable as well. For example, the angle at which the image was taken. The replica images were at a slight higher angle, this could be due to the height of the person who was making replica. Given the angle, they stood at a much taller stature than me. The orientation of the photograph was different as well, however only in the close-up image. The close-up image taken for the replica was a near 90 degree change in the orientation of the photograph, along with being a direct birds-eye-view as oppose to one off to the side. There was also a different in the range map. Although the same map was used, there were highlighted regions of which the plant does not grow where it has been highlighted in the replica. Along with this, there is a slight difference in the zoom used of this map. 

Methods Draft 2

Submitted by lgiron on Tue, 02/13/2018 - 20:33



             As a beginning, I wanted to get the images from the Ray Ethan Torrey Botanical Collection at the Morrill Greenhouses being that I have passed by a countless number of times in the past two and a half years. Being from a part of Central America, I was determined to get a plant that was native to either Central America or the upper regions of South America. In addition, I want a plant that is distinct in that it contains few flowers with distinct features as oppose to a plant with multiple flowers surrounding the plant itself, which would make it difficult to pinpoint the specific flower that will be individually photographed. A plant potted on the floor or on a shelf mid-height will enable others with shorter statures to have easy access over high-hanging ceiling or wall plants.

The botanical collection will be best illuminated at around mid-day when the sun is the highest entering the windows on the top of the greenhouses. Both images of my figure will be taken at the same time to minimize discrepancies between them as well as same height, although different angles will be needed to get a more in-depth view of the plant. Both images taken on a vertical axis as oppose to horizontal. The range figure will be taken off a website where marking the range is simple with little no to chance of error.

The images itself will be labeled A, B and C on the upper left-hand corner of each. The multi-panel figure itself being build using an online source with the images of the flowers itself above and below one another with the close-up being below the further image. These two will be on the left of the range map which will serve the same height of both plant images to make a larger square.


Methods Draft

Submitted by lgiron on Mon, 02/12/2018 - 21:55


            Attached to Morrill Science Building III is the Ray Ethan Torrey Botanical Collection at the Morrill Greenhouses. Viewing the abundance of plant species was disappointing in the main collection holding as well as Collection House A. It was not until Collection House B where I viewed what I sought, potted on the floor next to the opening leading to the further portion of Collection House B. Getting closer I saw in more detail, the bright pink leaf with erected yellow spadix of Anthurium andraeanum, also called the flamingo flower. Taking my phone, I took a picture capturing the 3 prominent leaves with their spadices, ensuring to also capture the second pot to its left, which contained a smaller pink leaf and its spadix surrounded by the green leaves with the absence of these spadices. Coming out with a centered image of the lower standing Anthurium andraeanum on the left and the taller standing on the right (Fig. A). Examining the closest of the 3 prominent leaves with spadices, I took another picture with a birds-eye-view to capture the pink leaf and its spadix parallel with its green leaf which lied below (Fig. B). Intriguing to the image, was the shape of the pink leaf which resemble that of an inverted heart with the spadix up the center showing the green leaf as if it was connected in one line with the pink leaf. Further research pinpointed that Anthurium andraeanum is native to Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuelan Antilles, and Windward Islands, coloring these areas red on a blank map of North and South America (Fig. C) (Anthurium… n.d.). Congregating these figures with the picture of 3 prominent leaves and one smaller leaf above the lone leaf with spadix picture on the left portion. Both beside the vertically mapped range of the Anthurium andraeanum, which lay the height of the combined first two figures.



Submitted by lgiron on Thu, 02/08/2018 - 21:04

            Throughout decades, NASA has been trying to improve their strategies to gaining access to places within our solar system and improve their technologies to enable its capabilities in future missions and support other spaceflight activities. One project that they are in the development is the Solar Electric Propulsion, or the (SEP). This new project is a cost-effective way to lengthen and improve the capabilities of space travel to enable NASAs ability to seek new missions beyond their current capability. This project will use on-board solar arrays that will use photons, or light rays, given off by the sun which will act as a solar propellant as oppose to the current chemical propulsion system, which has proven to be not only costly but also limited. The incoming solar rays will be absorbed by highly absorbent converters that will transfer this energy into electricity, similar to those we see on Earth with solar panels on houses and buildings. This new system will also use about 10 times less propellant but will cause the same amount of thrust and can provide a movement force of more than 65,000 mph. Not only will this new technology enable us to study deeper into our solar system, it can also be used to aid Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission which is a planetary defense mission in which we are able to redirect potentially hazardous Asteroids that can be seen traveling in the path of the Earth.




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