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Submitted by nchenda on Sat, 02/17/2018 - 15:14
In the action potential graph of the smooth muscle there is a plateau. The plateau is related to the ion concentrations in and out of the cell. The concentrations can only change with the receptor channels. Everything that happens after the initial action potential is what later results in the prolonged contraction. The contraction is related to the myosin light chain. Both sodium and calcium channels are found in the muscle membrane. When a neurotransmitter or hormone binds to them, it opens the channels. This causes an influx of ions and activates the chain of events inside the muscle cell that lead to muscle contraction. Smooth muscle has way less sodium channels than skeletal muscle, but they are definitely there. 

Differences and Inferences

Submitted by nchenda on Fri, 02/16/2018 - 14:07


  • One figure had the pictures in a column. The other figure had the pictures in a row.

  • One figure had clear pictures. The other figure had one unclear picture where it is dark.

  • One figure had more of an up-close picture of each person than the other figure.

  • One figure had the ruler overlapping part of the eyes. The other figure had the ruler next to the eyes.

  • One figure had eyebrows for all 3 pictures. The other figure did not.

  • Both figures had people with different skin tones, eye shapes, and eye colors.

  • One figure had the ruler placed next to the eyes at around 6-7 cm.



  • The person writing the methods didn’t specify how to measure what they were supposed to measure.

  • The person writing the methods did not explain how they created the figure.

  • The person writing the methods did not explain how they took the pictures.

  • The person writing the methods did not explain what to include in the pictures taken.

  • The person writing the methods did not specifically say who to take pictures of.

Putting the Figure Together

Submitted by nchenda on Fri, 02/16/2018 - 12:32

I used Google Docs. I put an “A” at the top and pressed the Tab button 7 times. I put a “B.” I inserted the image of the full plant in between the A and the B leaving some space in between. I inserted the image of the close-up of the flower on the right side of the B. The size of that image was about half the length of the first image. I put a “C” to line up right under the “B.” I inserted the PNG image of the map to line up right under the second image and next to the first image with some space in between. I adjusted the pictures to line up with each other accordingly.


Creating the Origin Map of the Plant

Submitted by nchenda on Fri, 02/16/2018 - 09:41

I searched for the native origins of Camellia Japonica online. I went on “wikimedia commons” and searched “blank world map with countries.” I chose the first map that came up. I downloaded it in large size. I downloaded Inkscape and imported the downloaded picture into Inkscape by going to “File” and “Import.” I clicked “Fill bounded areas” on the left side column and clicked on the magenta color at the bottom. I clicked on the native origins of the plant which included Japan, China, and both Koreas. I put in 1200 px for the “W” box at the top. I put -100 for the “Y” box and -800 for the “X” box. I went to “File” and clicked “Export PNG Image.” A box popped up on the right side and I clicked on “Export” that had a green check mark next to it. The image saved to my desktop and I renamed it as my username-original.png.


Methods Para 1

Submitted by nchenda on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 15:05

Finding and Capturing Pictures of the Plant

I went to Durfee Greenhouse in between 10am-4pm. I entered through the door that’s closest to the Integrative Learning Center. The plant I found was the very first plant to my right that was in a square pot. Its name is Camellia Japonica. I took a picture of the whole plant while standing in front of the entrance and diagonal to the plant. I took an up-close picture of a few flowers that were close together. These flowers had sun shining on them unlike the ones in the shade.


Neuron Doctrine

Submitted by nchenda on Thu, 02/08/2018 - 14:00

The Neuron Doctrine resulting from Cajal's discovery took over 40 years to be confirmed. Cajal and Golgi were both awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Cajal believed that neurons communicated by contact while Golgi thought the nervous system was one contiuous network. These two ideas went against each other until the electron microscope was invented. The electron microscope allowed scientists to have a closer look at how neurons actually communicated. It was confirmed then that Cajal was right about neurons communicating by contact. The Neuron Doctrine stating that neurons are the basic unit in the network of discrete individual cells in the nervous system was validated in the 1950s. 

Personal Statement Para 2

Submitted by nchenda on Wed, 02/07/2018 - 16:10

Despite growing up in America, I had nobody in my house who knew English. I had already learned to speak my native language when I was in Cambodia. Khmer was all I spoke until I was 5 because my mom only knew Khmer. I had no access to everyday technology that could’ve helped me learn the language because we couldn’t afford those things. By the time I attended school, I had no idea what people were saying to me. I had to adapt on my own to the foreign language. I woke up everyday at daycare dreading going to school. I would cry everyday for my mom because I barely ever saw her. She was always working and I was always scared and lonely. I would constantly cry until I was so tired that I would fall asleep at school. My teacher somehow understood what I was feeling so she let me off the hook. Other teachers weren’t so understanding. They whispered things about me to each other with disgusted facial expressions. When students bullied me, I couldn’t defend myself because I didn’t know how to speak English. Somehow, I would usually get in trouble for what they did. I had to endure all this alone since I had nobody to talk to who would understand me. I somehow managed to grasp the language within half a year of starting school. I became one of the top students in reading, writing, and math by the time I got to first grade. I stayed in the top ranks throughout my schooling career. I took multiple AP classes and transferred the credits to Umass Amherst. 

Personal Statement Para 1

Submitted by nchenda on Mon, 02/05/2018 - 14:07

My grandma sponsored my mother and I here to the U.S. We had to part with my dad when I was 2. They got divorced after my mom sponsored him here because my dad felt he was being wronged by my mom. He never paid for child support and fled. That was disappointing since we were the ones to always care for him. We sent him money every month while we were separated for 7 years despite how poor we were and how much we were struggling. All my life, I’ve been raised by a single mom. She had to work hard in order to provide for my 2 sisters, myself, and my grandma. My mom says I must carry the burden of being the eldest daughter while being the first to go to college in the family. I’ve always had to translate and explain just about everything to my mom since I was young. She does not speak nor understand English well. It gets stressful at times because I would from time to time, not understand the things she’s trying to do (mortgage, insurance, taxes, financial matters, etc.). Therefore, I couldn’t understand what the people were trying to tell her in return. I had to develop people skills in order to ask others in a polite manner to help us. I had to learn how to talk to people and interact well with them. That was how my family was able to keep going with our lives, asking others for help when we needed it. They say students are scared to ask questions because they don’t want to look dumb. I guess that’s why I’m able to ask questions all the time because I’ve had to do so my whole life in order for my family to survive.


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