Observations and Inerences of Methods Figures

Submitted by benjaminburk on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 16:36


  • The flower has a hint of white on it
  • The flowers look bigger in both pictures
  • His figure A is the close up and Figure B is the wide shot
  • He used red instead of blue to color in the map
  • More of china is shaded in on his than on mine
  • The text color is white instead of black
  • The text also has a black background
  • No arrows



  • ​The picture was taken from a closer position or with more zoom
  • The picture is of a different plant because my picture did not have any white in it or mine was taken at a later date farther into the blooming process
  • There was a lack of explanation on my part on how to construct the figure


Submitted by michaelkim on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 15:57

Today in Plant physiology class, I learned about combustion, reverse combustion, respiration vs. light reactions. Light reactions has another name which is photosynthetic e-transport. I found it intersting how NADH turns into NAD+ in respiration when it is NADP+ to NADPH in photosynthesis. The equation for the two are very similar however even though the electron transport is different for the two. Then we broke down the anatomy of chloroplast and studied the functions of each membranes. We also touched the basics of the Hill reaction equation but I still have no idea how to use it correctly.

Global gas 2

Submitted by sworkman on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 15:52

Human activities have increased the levels of most of the greenhouse gases. Nitrous oxide is released through soil cultivation, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production and biomass burning. Methane is produced through decomposition of landfill waste, agriculture, and manure from livestock. And carbon dioxide is released from deforestation, land use changes and burning fossil fuels. When these gases are released there is no easy way to reverse the effects; for example, carbon dioxide can take hundreds of thousands of years to dissipate through chemical weathering or rock formation. The main way carbon dioxide leaves the atmosphere is by being absorbed into the oceans which causes many problems. Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases and is a huge issue that has huge consequences.

Week 5 Draft 2: Lab Critique Final

Submitted by crmckenzie on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 15:23

            I believe that Dr. Farkas’ work could do wonders for cancer research. All three areas of research have an untapped potential, especially that of the macrophage research as once it is perfected, it is an area of immunotherapy and thus is a widely reliable method. I do, however, anticipate room for error in this method even once the process and the molecules involved are identified, as different types of cancer may behave in different ways. It is this variable that could set this research back. I also believe that a lot of the inspiration for these methods of research came from the novel idea of ADCs and their success thus far. The delivery system nucleic acid research is a direct application of this, and depending on the effectiveness of the materials, it could prove to better this idea. The circadian rhythm research can serve not only as a method to discover potential treatment processes for cancer, but also as a warning or a cause to increase mindfulness for circadian rhythms. All of these processes, if successful, would be long lasting and extremely significant to cancer research.

Lab 7 draft intro paragraph

Submitted by oringham on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 15:04

Indirect immunofluorescence staining and the direct labeling of components within the cell are two ways in which one can visualize parts of the cell that are otherwise too microscopic or transparent to identify. In this lab, we explore how primary antibodies impact efficacy of targeted cellular structure staining with respect to indirect immunofluorescence. Additionally, phalloidin coupled with fluorescent dye is used to directly label the actin cytoskeleton of two different cell types in order to visualize and investigate the organizational differences between the two cell types’ actin cytoskeleton structure.

Pavlischek on abortion p. 1

Submitted by liamharvey on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 14:53

-        Corollary: Pavlischek states that following the view that an abortion is the killing of a human being; when abortion is permitted it can lead to further abuse to other susceptible and vulnerable members of society. These members are namely children, the disabled, and elderly. Pavlischek goes further to explain that this corollary is often dismissed as a slippery slope fallacy (341).

-        Child Abandonment and Neglect: Pavlischek explains that children are the most vulnerable in our society and argues that if we are not concerned with the protection of our most vulnerable that we will tend to have a similar attitude to other vulnerable people, like the elderly and disabled (342).

Draft #2, week 5, notes on the auditory system

Submitted by vvikhrev on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 13:42

Something interesting about tonotopic mapping is that it is similar to the concept of somatosensory mapping (something we go over in every biology class probably). One difference is that the mapping doesn't start on the surface on any of our ear structures but rather it is the neurons that are mapped tonotopically from hair cell afferent neurons to the neurons in the cochlear nucleus to higher levels in teh cortex. Also, I believe that every frequency signal has the same amount of space on the cochlear nuclei. However in a somatosensory map, some things such as the fingers, are over-represented because of the immense amount of neuronal pathways leading from there to the cortex in the brain compared to our toes for example.

What does an Audiograph tell us? (ex: tells sensitivity decreases as you go lower than 20Hz)
What are tuning curves?
- info that goes to the brain by the auditory nerve (type 1 AP spikes) must be extracted and processed to form a perception of the stimulus
- info = which fibers are responding, rate, time patterns of the spikes in each fiber
- response area for a fiber is plotted sound pressure level vs. frequency = tuning curve
CF: the frequency that evokes a response at the lowest sound pressure level , at CF, auditory nerve fibers can respond to sound levels as low as 0dB in the most sensitive range of hearing
- likely generated by active motility of the OHCs
- narrow at low sounds b/c the fiber responds only a narrow band of frequencies near CF
- wider at higher sounds, this reflects the passive mechanical characteristics of basilar membrane motion w/ little contribution
from OHCs
- fibers w/ low CFs innervate the apex of the cochlea and high CFs = more basal places (as expected from the pattern of BM vibration)
Tonotopic Mapping: the precise mapping of frequency to position
- it is preserved as the auditory nerve projects into the cochlear nucleus
- this suggest that the frequency is coded via a place code, w/ neurons at different places coding for different frequencies
- spontaneous APs = no sound stimulation, what causes these?
- 20% voltage-gated channels are open at rest and Na+ is entering, APs are “smaller”
- hair cells RMP = (-55mV)
- but if you get a stronger signal (NT) then you would fire more frequent spikes, more “prominent” AP
- represents how this neuron responds to different frequences, the most sensitive response is @CF
- sharp-tuning, afferent neuron can separate frequencies very well b/c everything happens before the auditory fiber

Methods Paragraph 3

Submitted by tedarling on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 09:04

A map of the range of Camellia japonica was made using https://mapchart.net. It is natively found in China, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan, so these countries were selected with the default red color. Even though the distribution of the plant is only Asia, a world map was used to highlight that it is not found in other continents. The figure was constructed using photoshop.

Global CO2

Submitted by sworkman on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 00:38

Global warming is caused by the buildup of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere which keep the sun’s heat from escaping. Light from the sun, which is what heats the Earth, comes down to Earth and reflected off, but instead of going back through the atmosphere, it gets absorbed by greenhouse gases. Around 90% of the light from the sun is absorbed by these gases such as water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide. Global warming is occurring because greenhouse gas levels are continuously increasing, in a large part because of humans. In the last 150 years’ humans went through an industrial revolution that has significantly increased the release of greenhouse gases. Just within this time, carbon dioxide levels have increased from 280 ppm to 400 ppm. 

Week 5 Draft 3

Submitted by jngomez on Tue, 02/20/2018 - 23:27

ML385 would be another great inhibitor to use to target the trans activation of NRF2, transcription factor. This all works by ML385 finding a potential binding domain within NRF2 and in these case it will be the cap and collar or Neh1. Neh1 is also a region in which DNA binding occurs. Once it finds the potential binding domain it doesn't allow for the binding of the Nrf2-MAFG complex to ARE. MAFG is just a kind of sMaf, which are basic regions for leucine zipper type transcription factors. They act on gene regulation. This all results in a decrease in the rate of transcriptional activity.  In a Keap1 mutation it will result in the levels of GSH being reduced and GSH is composed of cysteine, glutamate and glycine.


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