For this assignment the primary objective was to learn about the aspects in writing and composing scientific writing entries.The methods section is an important aspect of an experiment because it illustrates to other prospering scientist what they carried out to obtain the results they desired. Every experimental procedure has an idea and hypothesis. With this hypothesis in mind there are a variety of components that go into supporting it. Their method of proof could either fail or succeed. However, the primary objective is to be as detailed as possible so that others could replicate and obtain identical results. Throughout this project we will learn of a variety of ways to gain skills in being descriptive, experimental, and innovative. A multi-panel figure was created to illustrate the plant species of our choice and it includes a detailed picture of the plant, the plant species as a whole, and a high-quality map depicting the origin of the species.
In order to achieve an ideal picture, one must take a picture when the light is shining on the plant to portray its pigmented red color. A full picture of the species will illustrate a variety of the species. To accomplish this a few feet should be taken back from the plant to capture other species in the frame. Should be standing at an angle. In achieving a close-up photograph of the plant, an individual must get close to the species which is about six and a half inches away. This is to capture an ideal picture and draw attention to the details that this particular species contains. In the close up and full plant photographs it will contain the surrounding green color leaves that embody it. In each photo light should reflect on the plant to complete the image.
Fluorescent stained phalloidin was used to directly label the actin cytoskeleton of both fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and LLC-Pk1 cells. Images of each cell type were taken at 10X and 100X magnification under a fluorescent filter, and in phase contrast. In visually examining the images, it is clear there is a stark difference in actin cytoskeleton composition for each cell type. Figures 3B and 4B demonstrate the actin cytoskeleton of LLC-Pk1 cells as a localized group of filaments around the nucleus and more compact. Figures 3D and 4D depict the cytoskeleton of NIH 3T3 cells under fluorescence, which appear to extend away from the nucleus and are less compact.
Images of pig kidney epithelial (LLC-Pk1) cells that were treated with both primary (anti-tubulin) and secondary (goat anti-rat FITC) antibodies for indirect immunofluorescence were taken at 10X magnification (Figure 1B & 1D) and 100X magnification (Figure 2B & 2D) under a fluorescent filter. Additional images were taken in phase contrast at 10X and 100X magnification (Figure 1A & 1C, Figure 2A & 2C, respectively). Additional LLC-Pk1 cells were treated in the absence of a primary antibody, (with buffer solution and secondary antibody) to create a control group for indirect immunofluorescence. These cells were imaged at 10X magnification (Figure 1C & 1D) and 100X magnification (Figure 2C & 2D) under a fluorescent filter. It can be visually discerned that there is a large difference in localization of fluorescent dye and ability to visualize tubulin structures between the two conditions. Figure 1B demonstrates a clear localization of fluorophores to the cells, specifically of tubulin structures around the nucleus. Figure 1D shows contrasting visual data, where fluorophores are seen indiscriminately binding to cellular structures as well as resting on parts of the slide that contain no cells. These differences are again highlighted, showing the direct localization of dye to microtubules, and random dying of miscellaneous cellular structures at a higher magnification in Figures 2B and 2D, respectively. Additionally, quantification of fluorescence was measured for both control and indirect immunofluorescence groups for all magnifications. It is apparent that the control group possesses a lower fluorescence intensity in localized tubulin areas than the group using the primary antibody for indirect immunofluorescence at 10X magnification (22.123, 46.028, respectively) and 100X magnification (31.249, 63.962, respectively) (Table 1).
The portrait picture of the entire plant was placed on the left side. The landscape picture of the flower was placed in the upper right corner. The landscape map of the range of Camellia japonica was placed in the lower right corner. Each of these three elements were labeled A, B, and C respectively by placing the letter directly above the image, in the top left corner with 6pt font. No other markings or labels were added. The two landscape images were near 600 pixels by 330 pixels. The portrait image was near 330 pixels by 600 pixels. The individual elements were padded with approximately 90 pixels worth of white space. The white space was between all elements and also between the elements and the border.
The authors mentioned early in their introduction that there have been eleven hypotheses suggested regarding the purpose of stotting in Thomson’s gazelles. They theorized that a gazelle’s probability of stotting may change depending on the type of predator pursuing them, if they are singled out by the predator, or their physical condition. For one prediction, the authors identified two types of predation styles, stalking and coursing, and compared the incidence of stotting between the two. They theorize the purpose of stotting in response to a coursing predator would be to demonstrate a gazelle’s ability to outrun them making the chase futile. Another predition tested was the difference in probability of stotting when approached by African wild dogs, a coursing predator, and how the way the dogs approached a gazelle might change its rate of stotting. An additional predition the authors tested was how the proportion of stotting in a gazelle might make that animal more or less likely to be chased by African wild dogs. Their last prediction was that stotting rates were an indicator of each individual’s health.
In order to evaluate our patients, progress and if our methods of treatment are working we will be performing PET scans. This will give us an image regarding the patient’s response to the treatment and whether the tumor has progressed or not. It will give us the molecular activities within the patient. This is a great way since the patient will not be harmed and it will illustrate whether we are targeting the correct pathway or of modifications will be needed. Pet scans also have the ability to measure an individual’s blood flow, glucose, and oxygen use. This will also help us see if organs surrounded the tumor are working. Overall, we will be obtaining molecular info with the use of nuclear medicine imaging.
I was very astonished when I first stumbled across this article. I had no idea that antibiotic resistant bacteria had a growing population in aquatic life. However, I am not surprised that is happening. Our over use of antibiotics has caused a negative cycle in the world of bacteria and medicine, the more we over-prescribe and abuse the use antibiotics, the higher the chance that bacteria will soon become resistant to it. Now we are no longer just endangering our well-being but the well-being of other creatures, I am not too entirely sure about mechanism of exposure of the bacteria to sea mammals, but I would hypothesize that would factor would be pollution and invading the habits of these mammals. Hopefully scientists will be able to find a way to reverse the effects of this problem, but this is fine example of how we need to be more cautious of our use of antibiotics and look of alternative solutions.
Every experiment contains a method section, in which the scientist records the steps and describes the process of the experiment that yielded the given results. The methods section allows other scientists to replicate the experiment and furthermore, it provides the experiment with some validity. The purpose of the methods project is to understand and develop a methods section of our own. To achieve this, we created a multipanel figure containing three pictures: one picture of the entire plant, a close-up of the flower, and a map of the origin of the species. For this experiment, the Camellia Japonica Napoleon was the plant being observed. The Camellia Japonica Napoleon is a plant that has beautiful multilayered pink flowers which begin blooming in January to March. This plant’s origin can be traced back to China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, but they are now sold and grown in many places across the world, such as the United States. This plant was chosen because the plant was easily accessible and it was starting to bloom. In the methods section, the main object was to get the student to the right place and to the correct plant. The angle in which the picture was taken was also a focal point of the methods section. Lastly, the way the multipanel figure was constructed was carefully explained in the methods project to ensure the right figures were put in the correct positions.
Every experiment contains a method section, in which the scientist records the steps and describes the process of the experiment that yielded the given results. The methods section allows other scientists to replicate the experiment and furthermore, it provides the experiment with some validity. The purpose of the methods project is to understand and develop a methods section of our own. To achieve this, we created a multipanel figure containing three pictures: one picture of the entire plant, a close-up of the flower, and a map of the origin of the species. For this experiment, the Camellia Japonica Napoleon was the flower being observed.