Dr. Chao’s current research involved how the mitochondria gets its shape and factors that influence mitochondrial organization. F1F0 ATP synthase dimers play a pivotal role in the formation of creases and folds in the mitochondria needed for increasing surface area. Dr. Chao showed this by increasing the amount of ATP synthase dimers, which in turn increased the number of creases and organization in the mitochondria observed. Dr. Chao also wanted to understand how dynamic membranes are regulated. This dynamic membrane and formation of cristae is regulated by a number of proteins included Mfn1/2 and OPA1, both of which are in the dynamin family of GTPases. Dr. Chao is currently looking to into the relationship between these proteins and membrane conformation.