Most of their time not spent hunting is spent foraging or resting, the former of which is done both on land and in the canopy, while the latter is only on land. Their dentition is largely unchanged from their black bear relatives, with grinding molars and premolars suited for eating fruits and plants, and large canines used for killing prey. The jungle bear has larger canines than its black bear counterpart. Due to the extremes of the island of Madagascar, such as cyclones or other extreme weather, the jungle bear will sometimes have to resort to insects as their main source of protein. If the larger vertebrates are less abundant, they will navigate the island until they find suitable food.
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The species’ fur is less dense than most bear species, better suiting it for the balmy climate of Madagascar. Their fur is a dark brown color with large swathes of dark mossy green to help camouflage them in the shadowy green cover of the jungle. The most prominent sexual dimorphic character is the presence of horns on the males. These horns resemble those of a bighorn sheep, though they aren’t as large relative to their body size as that of a sheep. The males use these horns for fighting, but they also play a large role in the unique hunting rituals that these animals have. Their paws have longer toes than a black bear, as well as longer claws, allowing for better grip on trees as well as better weaponry for hunting.
Ursus arboreus, the jungle bear, is most closely related to the black bear. It is in genus ursus, due to it having descended from black bears which are in the genus ursus, and its species arboreus indicates that they spent much of their time in trees. The species closely resembles black bears, with a few key differences. Jungle bears are smaller than black bears, with males weighing on average 250lbs while the females weigh an average of 200lbs. This lightened frame, as well as a muscular prehensile tail allows jungle bears to navigate the jungle canopy swiftly.
Ursus arboreus can be found in the rainforests on the eastern side of the island of Madagascar. These east side rainforests receive an average rainfall of 80 inches per year, with some regions receiving up to 230 inches of rain per year (Crowley, 2018). These eastern Madagascar rainforests are dense as well as extremely vertical, with evergreen canopies exceeding 30m high (Chepkomi, 2016). The vegetation is 83% endemic to the island, but the plants fill much the same niches typical of a tropical rainforest (Crowley, 2018). As is typical of a rainforest there are fewer smaller plants under the canopy cover, due to lack of sunlight, and large evergreen trees covering the landscape and providing the canopy.
If proteins are able to enter the filtrate through the basement membrane, they will slow the total rate of glomerular filtration. This filtration rate is largely governed by Starling forces, and the equation for this is GFR = Kf [(Pc-Pb)-(Πc)]. In this equation (Πc) represents the “Glomerular Capillary Oncotic Pressure”. Under normal condition, this value would be set to zero as no proteins would be able to permeate the membrane and enter the capillaries. With glomerulonephritis, proteins can permeate the membrane. In the equation this value is subtracted from other values, meaning any positive non-zero rate would have a slowing effect on Glomerular filtration.
I would expect to find both amino acids and glucose in hepatic portal circulation. This is because both of these nutrients would not yet have been absorbed by the small intestine and they are vital for body function. I would not expect to find many lipids in hepatic portal circulation because they would have already been absorbed into lacteals. After nutrients have been absorbed into the hepatic portal, they enter the liver, where some glucose is stored as glycogen, before the nutrient rich blood is sent to the heart to be circulated around the body. This allows for cells to receive nutrients through the bloodstream.
This experiment, which will be conducted on the University of Massachusetts Amherst campus, will aim to identify the differences in grass diversity relative to multiple variables. These variables include the pH of the soil, the amount of sunlight the area receives, the amount of foot traffic on the patch of grass, how close to a roadway the patch is, the elevation of the grass relative to its surroundings, the frequency that the grass is mowed, how long ago the grass was planted, and how close the grass is to a body of water. It is important to note that weeds will also be identified when determining species richness of an area. The results of these tests will allow us to see the way an urban environment like a college campus affects the diversity of the grass and weeds that grow on it.
Laplace’s law states that as the thickness of the wall increases, the overall tension decreases, while pressure remains the same. In regard to understanding cardiac function, this law is important because it allows us to see how the variable thickness of arteries, capillaries, and veins helps to keep the stress of normal blood pressure manageable for these vessels.
Oxygen and glucose are essential to all tissues in the body as tissues require oxygen and glucose to function. Brain and nervous tissues use a disproportionally high amount of oxygen. In fact while the brain makes up about 2% of a bodies weight, it consumes 20% of the oxygen and 50% of the glucose in the body. Because these tissues require more oxygen and glucose to function, and because brain cells contain no glucose stores, they are more sensitive to changes in oxygen and glucose levels. If there was a lack of glucose in the brain, the brain tissue would be forced to use ketones in its place.
Atropine would enter the synaptic cleft and bind to the receptors that usually bind to ACh. This means the atropine is acting as a competitive inhibitor. This function can work as an antidote because instead of ACh continuously binding to the receptors unable to be removed from circulation, atropine would bind to some of the receptors, making ACh unable to bind. When atropine is bound to the receptor it doesn’t elicit a response so the unwanted response is unable to be triggered by the ACh.