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Methods Project - Results

Submitted by ameserole on Thu, 02/22/2018 - 21:39

Results

Both figures showed the natural range of C. japonica labeled as part A, and both maps showed the same locations, China, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan as where the plant can be found naturally. Both the original and the replicate figure had two images with a single flower as the subject. Both figures also had an image of the entire plant. The main differences between the figures appears to be the lighting in the images of the flowers, and the distances at which the camera was from the subject of the pictures. The original images are brighter than the replicate. The content of the images in the original and the replicate is nearly identical. Another purely aesthetic difference is how the images are arranged, with the original having transparent space between the images, and the replicate having no empty space at all.

Mercury in Songbirds P2

Submitted by ameserole on Wed, 02/21/2018 - 19:32

Songbirds have a varied diet, and there are many components which contribute to the levels of mercury in their bodies. What the results of this study tell us is that by volume, arachnids contribute a much larger amount of mercury to these songbirds than any other food source. There could be multiple reasons for these elevated levels of mercury, such as the spiders themselves eating insects that incidentally contain high levels of mercury, or it could be that these spiders use elevated levels of mercury in their bodies. Whatever the case is, these arachnids contribute much more mercury, even in absolute terms, than the moths and butterflies that make up more of the songbirds diet.

Mercury Consumption by Songbirds

Submitted by ameserole on Tue, 02/20/2018 - 15:03

We can confidently say that the increase in mercury found in songbirds when eating spiders is due to biomagnification. This is the concept that consumers on higher trophic levels will consume more “magnified” amounts of trace elements, as their food also consumes other food rather than producing it. The reason that this happens is that when an organism consumes trace elements, or any substance that its body isn’t familiar with, the organism will hold much of that substance in its body and will have a hard time excreting it. Over time the substance builds up even though all of the “normal” waste is excreted. When the higher trophic level predators come and eat these organisms with elevated mercury, they will consume a large amount of mercury at once and will also not process it well, holding it in their bodies. This effect is why toxins tend to build up in larger amounts at the top of food chains

PP Nuclear Arms Race P2

Submitted by ameserole on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 16:55

This is where the two paths diverge. With the discovery of nuclear fission both countries started nuclear programs, but the amount of resources dedicated to them varied greatly. In the US, the program started slowly. At the start of the program the idea of a nuclear weapon was a distant thought. In a letter written to Winston Churchill by Bohr in 1944, he recalls that a few years prior the idea of a complete and functioning bomb was a “fantastic dream” (Bohr Letter). Allied British scientists thought that the bomb wouldn’t be a weapon of this war, but one for the future due to the vast amount of resources needed to produce it. The American’s estimated the costs of the project to be much lower than they actually were when the project was complete. This misplaced optimism may have played a part in their decision to put what is now equivalent to $30 billion dollars into the creation of these weapons. This project was never guaranteed to pay off, and putting this enormous of an effort into something during wartime is a big risk. The German nuclear project was run differently. Instead of focusing only on a nuclear weapon, the Germans set out to harness all facets of nuclear power, including nuclear energy. This meant that the already limited resources of a country at war were to be spread even thinner, making the bomb even less of a priority for Germany (Walker 24-25).

Nuclear Arms Race P2

Submitted by ameserole on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 12:07

This is where the two paths diverge. With the discovery of nuclear fission both countries started nuclear programs, but the amount of resources dedicated to them varied greatly. In the US, the program started slowly. At the start of the program the idea of a nuclear weapon was a distant thought. In a letter written to Winston Churchill by Bohr in 1944, he recalls that a few years prior the idea of a complete and functioning bomb was a “fantastic dream” (Bohr Letter). Allied British scientists thought that the bomb wouldn’t be a weapon of this war, but one for the future due to the vast amount of resources needed to produce it. The American’s estimated the costs of the project to be much lower than they actually were when the project was complete. This misplaced optimism may have played a part in their decision to put what is now equivalent to $30 billion dollars into the creation of these weapons. This project was never guaranteed to pay off, and putting this enormous of an effort into something during wartime is a big risk. The German nuclear project was run differently. Instead of focusing only on a nuclear weapon, the Germans set out to harness all facets of nuclear power, including nuclear energy. This meant that the already limited resources of a country at war were to be spread even thinner, making the bomb even less of a priority for Germany (Walker 24-25).

Nuclear Arms Race P1

Submitted by ameserole on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 01:11

The race for nuclear arms is often framed as a race between two men, lead German scientist Werner Heisenberg, and lead American scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The two men became acquainted many years before the war when they both attended the University of Göttingen in Germany in 1926. Both became distinguished nuclear physicists in their careers before the war. Each man was tasked with taking a lead position in their respective countries nuclear program, both of which were created in 1939. Up until this point, both countries were at a similar level of advancement toward building the bomb. In late 1938 German scientists discovered nuclear fission, the core concept of a nuclear weapon. British scientist Niels Bohr brought this information with him to America, and shortly after in January of 1939 the first successful nuclear fission test in the US was completed at Columbia University. It was with this information that each country realized the destructive force capable of a nuclear device, and decisions had to be made on how far the technology should be pursued.

Embryonic Development

Submitted by ameserole on Tue, 02/13/2018 - 18:57

If you look at a human embryo next to the embryo of a reptile, or that of a bird, you will see striking similarities between the groups. But why is this? If each goes on to take a completely different form, then why would each start from nearly the same point? These embryonic forms have remained the same since the branching of these species from a common ancestor some millions of years ago. I suppose evolutionarily, these embryonic forms provided everything needed to grow into completely separate body types, and any change wouldn’t have been beneficial enough to take place. This is just one of the many vestiges left from our evolutionary past.

What is Ethnonationlism?

Submitted by ameserole on Fri, 02/09/2018 - 12:27

Ethnonationalism is like nationalism in that it is a way to find sense and belonging within a group, but ethnonationalism emphasises the person’s ethnicity rather than where they live. These movements band people together based on their ethnicity regardless of their location. An example of this is seen during the fall of the Soviet Union, which encompassed many satellite countries near Russia such as Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. At the time they weren’t countries, but as the citizens began to see the Soviet Union fall, they began to identify with their region and ethnic identities rather than with the union they were a part of. Another example is Israel’s “right to return”, which grants every ethnically Jewish person the right to return to Israel, and be granted citizenship. This shows they identify with a place they may not live.

Effects of Caffeine on Metabolism

Submitted by ameserole on Thu, 02/08/2018 - 22:01

Effects of Caffeine on Metabolism

A study was conducted in which mice were given a diet of normal food, while other mice were given a caffeinated diet. It was found that caffeine significantly decreased the mass of fat tissues, as well as increasing the transformation of ADP to ATP while all other variables were kept the same. It was concluded that caffeine promotes lipid metabolism via the cAMP pathway.

Resource: Zhang, S., Li, Y., Wang, G., Tan, R., Tsoi, B., Mao, G., . . . He, R. (2015). Caffeine ameliorates high energy diet-induced hepatic steatosis: Sirtuin 3 acts as a bridge in the lipid metabolism pathway. Food Funct., 6(8), 2578-2587.

 

A study was conducted on ten taekwondo athletes, in which athletes were given either a capsule containing caffeine or a placebo one hour before the combat simulation. It was found that while the caffeine didn’t have any measurable effects on the perceived exertion of the athletes, it was estimated to have increased glycolytic contribution during combat simulation.

Resource: Lopes-Silva, J. P., Santos, J. F., Branco, B. H., Abad, C. C., Oliveira, L. F., Loturco, I., & Franchini, E. (2015). Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation.

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