The authors are using human models to test the questions posed. There were specific guidelines as to be able to join this study. The patients had to be between the ages of 18 to 70. They having to diagnosed by two to three study psychiatrists with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar II as it is defined in the Structured Clinical Interview in the DSM-IV. The patients have to had a depressive episode of at least 12 months duration and have previously tried four antidepressant treatments prior to the study. They also have to have an intolerance to electroconvulsive therapy or were unable to receive it. The patients also needed to have a score of 20 or higher on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Right before operation, the patients also need to have a score of 20 or higher across four weeks before the operation. The participants also need a score of 50 or less on the Global Assessment of Functioning. Although there were criteria to exclude participation. Patients could not have another medical or psychiatric disorder. The patients could not had substance use within the past twelve months, or a suicide attempt within the last 6 months of twice within the past two years. The patients could not be pregnant during the study. The reason that humans rather than animals were chosen for the clinical trials is because it would be very difficult to replicate in animals. The study is based on having the patients describe how they feel emotionally which cannot be reproduced in animals.
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