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Comparison of Pictures

Submitted by cfellrath on Fri, 02/16/2018 - 14:29

The two different figures have many differences. One difference is that in Figure 1 the smokers pictures are to the left (A and C) and the nonsmokers are to the right (B and D), while in Figure 2 the nonsmokers are to the left (A and C) and the smokers to the right (Band D). Another difference is in Figure 1 there is a split of gender by the girls have the top two pictures (A and B) and the boys have the bottom two pictures (C and D). In Figure 2 the boys are on the top two photos (A and B) while the girls are the bottom two photos (C and D). The figures are taken in different places. Figure 1 A shows that woman smokers have a lung volume of 2.7 L while in Figure 1 B the nonsmoker woman has a lung volume of 4.7 L. The male smoker has a volume of 5.5 L shown in Figure 1 C and the nonsmoker male has a lung volume of 6.0 L shown in Figure 1 D. In Figure 2 the volumes are significantly lower. The smoker woman has a volume of 1.7 L shown in Figure 2 D, while the nonsmoker woman has the lung volume of 2.5 L shown in Figure 2 C. In Figure 2 B, the male smoker's lung volume is 2.5 L and in Figure 2 A, the male nonsmoker's lung volume is 3.5 L. In Figure 1 A and B, the woman shown have different hair colors, height, and ethnicities than the woman shown in Figure 2 C and D. Also the men from Figure 1 C and D also have different hair color and height than the men shown in Figure 2 A and B.  The discrepancies in these two figures can be the result of the pictures being taken in two different environment and have different people in each photo. The lung volumes can be because the people shown in each figure are different and therefore can have different lung volumes. The lung volumes can be different if the people from Figure 1 had more time to fill up the instrument of measurement compared to the people from Figure 2. Also since there seem to be from different environments, the ages of those shown in Figure 1 could be different from Figure 2 therefore that could factor into the different volumes obtained. 

Observations Vs Inferences

Submitted by cfellrath on Fri, 02/16/2018 - 13:43

An example of an observation is seeing a person walking a dog on the sidewalk. One inference I can come up with about what I had observed is that the person walking the dog is the dog's owner. Another inference I could make is that the person is walking the dog on the sidewalk to avoid danger to both the dog and themselves. 

Perfect Paragraph

Submitted by cfellrath on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 18:58

In the 19th century new ideas had emerged of how the brain functions. There were two different theories at the forefront during this period. Camilo Golgi, best known for creating the Golgi stain, had theorized that the brain was circulatory network such as the heart and that neurites of different neurons were all connected. Another scientist Santiago Ramon y Cajal believed that the brain worked via contact rather than connection. He theorized that neurites of different neurons are not continuous with each other and communicate by contact. The theory that was proposed by Ramon y Cajal would be known as the Neuron Doctrine. However, his theory was not accepted until proven much later by the electron microscope, and is now universally accepted

Methods draft

Submitted by cfellrath on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 18:38

I went to the Morrill Greenhouses from 12pm-1pm. I entered into the second collection house. I gazed through the flowers until one flower caught my eye. The flower was the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Malvaceae. I decided to photograph the flower in front. The first photograph I took was of the flower with some of the leaves. This photo was obtained by have the camera at a diagonal angle to get enough detail of the leaves and flower. The next photograph I took was of the flower up close. I took this photo at an slightly less than parallel to the flower in order to get the best detail. I took two more photos with a coin in order to show the relative size, one photo was of the whole plant with a quarter, and the second one was of the flower with a coin in view. By using a collage maker from the internet I created one figure. In the figure I also put a map with filled in countries of where the flower originated. 

Introduction

Submitted by cfellrath on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 18:37

My goal of obtaining a flower was to find the flower that stood out to me most.  I planned to obtain the photo during mid-day because the sun would be able to shine on the flowers. I wanted to go the Morrill Greenhouses since I pass by them almost every day. The flower that accomplished the goal is the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Malvaceae, commonly known as the “Snow Queen.” The vibrant color of a dark pink almost red stood out to me, so I decided to use this flower for my figure. These photos were taken at different angles in order to get the full plant and then a very detail picture of the flower itself.  In order to create a follow view of the flower, I used several photos including two with an object to show perspective of how big the flower actually is. After taking the photos, I will label each and include another figure of a map of where the flower originates. 

Neuron Doctrine

Submitted by cfellrath on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 17:06

In the 19th century, there was debate about the brain and how it functions. There were two different theories of how the brain worked. Camilo Golgi, best known for creating the Golgi stain, had theorized that the brain was circulatory network such as the heart and that neurons were all connected. Another scientist Santiago Ramon y Cajal believed that the brain worked via contact rather than connection. He theorized that neurites of different neurons are not continuous with each other and communicate by contact. The theory that was proposed by Ramon y Cajal would be known as the Neuron Doctrine. However, his theory was not accepted until proven much later by the electron microscope, and is now universally accepted. 

Autopolyploidy

Submitted by cfellrath on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 16:50

Autopolyploidy causes the offspring to be reproductively isolated from its parent species. After the formation of the tetraploid offspring the gametes that they would form would be 2n of 6 chromosomes. The parent species forms gametes with n of 3 chromosomes. The parent species and offspring species can produce an offspring with 3n, although they would be sterile because gametes would not be able to form since a chromosome would be left unmatched during meiosis. This is an example of post-zygotic reproductive isolation because the offspring would be sterile but would have been viable. 

Biochemistry

Submitted by cfellrath on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 16:48

Using Bloom’s taxonomy from Lesson 1, I believe that on the pyramid this question would be apply. I believe this because you are taking information we have been given and applying it to the question. In this problem you have been given beforehand which amino acids have been in each category, although, in this problem we are not asked to determine the amino acid shown in the picture, but to determine the category of the picture and then pick one of the listed that is also in the correct category.  In order to answer the question correctly, demonstrate your knowledge of the classifications of amino acids.                                              

Genes

Submitted by cfellrath on Thu, 02/15/2018 - 16:47

Defensin genes in snakes are expressed in the pancreas and are used to fight infections, in humans, pigs and mice they are also used to fight infections. Gene is the process of generating new genetic material by copying the gene sequence. Regulatory mutations are presences of enhancer or silencers in a region of DNA that can control transcription. Coding sequence mutations are changes in the DNA sequence which leads to different proteins being synthesized. These three mechanisms helped evolve defensin genes into venomous crotamine. Gene duplication helped evolve crotamine by creating copied of defensin genes to attack different pathogens. A regulatory mutation which changed where a protein was produced was duplicated in snakes, the new protein location allowed snakes to release the defensing into the bite wounds of the prey. More mutations of the duplicated gene caused for the evolving of the defensin from attacking pathogens to attacking the prey’s muscles. Different venoms evolved from different genes from either the heart or brain. These genes went through regulatory mutations that were duplicated over and over. More mutations fine-tuned them into the venoms today.  Venom genes were seen to be in a common ancestor of all snakes. 

Dog Skull

Submitted by cfellrath on Fri, 02/09/2018 - 14:24

Figure 1: C. lupus familiaris skull.

The figure illustrates the structure of common dog’s skull. The skull is two separate parts connected by the mandibular condyle fits into the mandibular fossa. The lateral view of the dog skull shows the different bones that have fused to become whole

 

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