As I examined the diet of this species, I found that the species diet consisted of grass. I looked at the structure of the teeth, and observed hypsodont teeth. These teeth were also occulusal, lophodont teeth consistent with the diet of grazer such as horses. The digestive system also pointed in the direction of a grazers’ diet. The esophagus was 5-7 feet long. The stomach was could hold between 10-22 quarts. The small intestine was around feet and could hold 72 quarts. The cecum was around 6 feet long and could hold 30-38 quarts. The large colon and small were 12-14 feet and held 86 quarts and 16 quarts. The colon also contained commensal bacteria which helped with the breakdown of the grass in the digestive tract. The rectum of this animal was 2 feet. The length of each part of the digestive tract had resembled that of the Equidae family, although, due to this animal being larger the tract was also larger.
You are here
As I examined the diet of this animal, I found that the species diet consisted of grass. I looked at the structure of the teeth, and observed hypsodont teeth. These teeth were also occulusal, lophodont teeth consistent with the diet of grazer such as horses. The digestive system also pointed in the direction of a grazers’ diet. The esophagus was 5-7 feet long. The stomach was could hold between 10-22 quarts. The small intestine was around feet and could hold 72 quarts. The cecum was around 6 feet long and could hold 30-38 quarts
The first glance of this new unique species occurred as I was looking for the dens of prairie dogs. At first I had thought I found a newly colored horses, although, while looking more closely at this majestic animal, I had realized this animal was significantly larger than an average horse. I would say this animal was about 10 feet high off the ground and weighed between 600-1500 pounds. The structure of the face of the animal looked similar to that of a giraffe. The coloring of this animal was brown with large spots of orange. The animal had pointed ears, although, what caught my eye was the projections next to the ears. These projections were ossicones which I had only seen on the family of Giraffidae. As I continued to look at this animal, I realized that the structure of the animal’s legs were most similar to that of the family of Equidae. The foot of this animal was very much elongated. The calcaneum was located on the posterior of the hind limbs. The animal had a single pulley astragalus, which is common of the order Perissodactyla. The most intriguing was the mesaxonic foot that this animal had. The animals had cursorial locomotion, and was aided by the fact that the animal contained a cannon bone, therefore, this animal is able to run as efficient as the horses, which are known as the more cursorial perissodactyl. After this first encounter with this new species I decided I would tag the animal and examine it further.
As I was exploring the Great Plains of North America, I stumbled upon the most important discovery of my career, a new animal species. I had come to the Great Plains to record the behavior of the local prairie dogs in the area, although, instead I found a different type of animal. The Great Plains are part of the Temperate Grassland Biome. In this environment the average temperature is 9.1oC, although there is great variations of seasonal changes including wet summers and dry winters. The total amount of precipitation in this environment is 727 mm of rain fall per year. The high precipitation is perfect for grasses to grow on this flat region. In this biome, one would not be able to find trees due to frequent fires and the herbivorous diet of the animals that inhabit this area.
In both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cells. Although in the eukaryotic cell the formation of acetyl-CoA, the Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs) and the oxidative Phosphorylation occurs in an organelle called the Mitochondria. The opposite of breaking down glucose is gluconeogenesis, which forms glucose from pyruvate. In the prokaryotic cell the process of the formation of glucose occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. In the eukaryotic cell gluconeogenesis starts in the mitochondria and finishes in the cytoplasm of the cell.
The overall delta G of gluconeogenesis is negative. Although gluconeogenesis is considered an anabolic reaction because it is the building of a new structure, it is also a coupled reaction. Gluconeogenesis is couples with glycolysis therefore the energy given off by another reaction that is indirect such as the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and Pi
Glycolysis is only “partial” in the oxidation of glucose because the reaction’s product is 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH. Therefore the glucose is not fully oxidized of all its potential energy since much energy is stored with the two pyruvates. Pyruvate carried a decent amount of energy is the chain bonds of C-C and C-H. The fully oxidized product would be CO2 with no potential to reduce electron carriers.
A coupled reaction is a series of connected reactions that share products and substrates. The reactions increase efficiency of energy transfer, and allows more points of regulation. The regulation is important for conservation of energy and resources for the cell. In order for a coupled reaction to be favorable, the net delta G must be overall negative. This means the pathways cannot be direct opposites of each other because than the pathway would have a slightly positive making it unfavorable. Also the pathway would then be futile and waste energy.
Glycogen degradation and glycogen synthesis have many similarities and differences. The main difference between the two is degradation is a catabolic reaction while synthesis is an anabolic reaction. Although the catabolic and anabolic reactions are normally thought of as one releasing energy the other requiring energy, Glycogen degradation and synthesis is a coupled reaction therefore the overall reaction would be releasing energy to make it favorable. Another difference is the use of different enzymes. Degradation uses the enzyme phosphorylase that breaks only the bond between an alpha 1 and 4 bond. Synthesis forms bonds with glycogenin.
Highly branched glycogen structure is more efficient form of energy storage than an unbranched structure. Highly branched glycogens have a significant number of ends that can be added to or removed from. These branched glycogens have one end that is unable to reduce or add to. The other end of the branch is able to be reduced or added upon. The branching structure is optimal for the efficiency of storage and/ or release of glucose.