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Spinal cord injury figure 3/4

Submitted by sworkman on Thu, 04/19/2018 - 14:47

This combination of systems proved to be very successful in regaining movement for the patient. In fig. 3A, the different movements are shown with the different muscle contractions. The dot plots show the success rate for virtual and real arm movement; it shows that the movement is above the possibility of chance. The virtual arm was shown to have quicker response, but this is probably due to the lack of strength in the muscles. The patient was given the task of drinking coffee which involved reaching and grasping; this test had success 11 out of 12 times. Fig. 4 shows this action along with the time it took to complete each stage of this function. For this task, the system was turned off to see if any function remained, but showed no movement, thus proving the success in movement is due to the two-part system.

spinal cord injury figure 2

Submitted by sworkman on Wed, 04/18/2018 - 22:02

This experiment was done over a long period of time. The patient had to get multiple surgeries for the implantation of the electrodes and needed a relatively long recovery time in between surgeries. A time line of the procedures done are shown in fig. 2A. Time was also taken to work on strengthening the muscles used; there was a long period after the injury, before the experiment, when the muscles were not used at all. Before trying to move his actual arm, the patient worked on visualizing the movement, then worked on moving a virtual reality arm. Fig. 2B shows the virtual reality arm and the movement he was trying to achieve. Fig 2C shows the different stages of visualizing the movements, then using the virtual arm to see the movements and the actual movement of the arm. And fig. 2D shows the brain activity correlated with the different movements for the virtual reality and real arm.

Spinal cord injury figure 1

Submitted by sworkman on Wed, 04/18/2018 - 14:50

The method that was used involved intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) implanted into the brain, which consisted of just under 200 microelectrodes connected to a neural decoder. This system translated the firing of action potentials and their frequency power into commands that were sent to the FES system. The functional electrical stimulation (FES) had electrodes under the skin on the muscle of the patient that would stimulate contraction when signaled. In this experiment, a mobile arm support was used against gravity and for abduction and adduction movements. Fig. 1A shows these systems attached to the patient. In fig. 1B, graphs are shown demonstrating the neural patterns recognized for different movements involving the extension and flexion.

Spinal cord injury - PP

Submitted by sworkman on Tue, 04/17/2018 - 14:46

This paper’s objective was to explore the possibility of restoring movement to a patient with tetraplegia from a high-cervical spinal cord injury. In experiments done previously, the patient usually had a lower and less severe injury so there was less loss of function. This experiment aimed to stimulate both a reach and grasp movement using a combination of iBCIs and FES systems. Patients with these injuries need constant aid so this is aimed to make the patient become self-sufficient.

                This experiment used a man with a severe spinal cord injury that occurred eight years before the testing. Its important to do these tests on humans because animals do not get these types of injuries and survive. The long period of time between injury and testing eliminates the possibility that the movement stimulated is a result of residual function in the muscles. The severity just shows how effective the systems are even with so much loss of function.

Diabetes in nervous system

Submitted by sworkman on Tue, 04/17/2018 - 14:38

Diabetes Ketoacidosis (DKA) starts to express symptoms from the lack of the hormone insulin. When things are working normally, insulin delivers glucose (from food intake) into cells, where it can be converted into energy. But without enough insulin in the body, glucose accumulates in the blood, where it is of little use. Even though there is plenty of glucose around, it can't get into the cells to feed them. The body's response is to drive up blood glucose even more by spurring the liver to break down its glucose stores and to make additional glucose from scratch.

As the body tries to clear the surplus glucose out of its blood through urination, a person may become dangerously dehydrated. At the same time, the body starts to liquidate fat deposits for energy. Fat is indeed rich in energy, but breaking down these stockpiles produces acidic side products called ketones. In high enough concentrations, ketones become toxic by making the blood more acidic. This imbalance is the crux of DKA and gives this complication its name. This increase in blood acidity can severely disrupt the finely tuned chemical processes in your body that keep you living and healthy.

 

spinal cord injury

Submitted by sworkman on Fri, 04/13/2018 - 03:05

This paper’s objective was to explore the possibility of restoring movement to a patient with tetraplegia from a high-cervical spinal cord injury. In experiments done previously, the patient usually had a lower and less severe injury so there was less loss of function. This experiment aimed to stimulate both a reach and grasp movement using a combination of iBCIs and FES systems. Patients with these injuries need constant aid so this is an attempt to let the patient become self-sufficient. 

This experiment used a man with a severe spinal cord injury that occurred eight years before the testing. Its important to do these tests on humans because animals do not get these types of injuries and survive. The long period of time between injury and testing eliminates the possibility that the movement stimulated is a result of residual function in the muscles. The severity just shows how effective the systems are even with so much loss of function.

Background PP

Submitted by sworkman on Wed, 04/11/2018 - 01:09

Many of these experiments have a similar design. They have a way of measuring diversity in the species; when the organism is a type of insect the method to measure is usually setting traps and counting the number of different species.

The different insect species in relation to their indication of different environmental factors has been studied and documented thoroughly, but the diversity of these insects has not been tested in this area. This experiment uses a well-tested method to find biodiversity to discover more about the area in which we live.    

Background 1

Submitted by sworkman on Thu, 04/05/2018 - 14:23

It has been a common technique in ecology to use indicator organisms to evaluate certain aspects of an ecosystem. It is shown that certain species thrive in particular environments, so by finding what the diversity is in a location aids in answering questions about the area.

Biodiversity can be used as an indicator of environment. Aceres (2010) shows the benefit of testing multiple locations and how the wildlife diversity can reflect how recently the land was tampered with. The Winner (1980) surveyed the population differences of different insects near rivers suspected of metal pollution. Their results showed a vast difference in the species found in the polluted water versus clean. Gaufin had a similar experiment that used aquatic invertebrates to measure water pollution.

 

Proposal abstract

Submitted by sworkman on Wed, 04/04/2018 - 14:25

This experiment uses the diversity of insects on different parts of the UMass campus in Amherst, MA to indicate different factors about its microclimates. There has been a great deal of research focused on finding what different insect species says about the area they live. This experiment is designed so different groups can set up traps in various spots so they might be compared and conclusions can be drawn. This project would tell us a great deal about the environment in our area.

abstract

Submitted by sworkman on Tue, 04/03/2018 - 22:17

This experiment uses the diversity of insects on different parts of the UMass campus in Amherst, MA to indicate different factors about its microclimates. There has been a great deal of research focused on finding what different insect species says about the area they live. This experiment is designed so different groups can set up traps in various spots so they might be compared and conclusions can be drawn. This project would tell us a great deal about the environment in our area.

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