The way it's doing this is by guiding glutamine which we know is the addiction and directing it towards a pathway in which small molecules will be converted to large molecules. This will enhance purine synthesis and have an effect on pentose phosphate pathway to further the progress of cell proliferation and division. Essentially, Nrf2 when not disturbed and plays its role and regulated it helps in the removal of carcinogens. When hyperactive the malignant tumorous cells can tolerate reactive oxidative species and will avoid programmed cell death.
The Keap1-Nrf2 pathway is a regulator of providing protection to cells from harmful agents like peroxide or singlet oxygen. In this pathway, Nrf2 is bound to Keap1 and is kept it in the cytoplasm unless stressors come in which then means that they dissociate from each other. This leads to Nrf2 entering the nucleus through phosphorylation. Ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2 occurs when bound to Keap1. Once in the nucleus Nrf2 binds to ARE (antioxidant response element) and sMaf. When there is a loss of function in Keap1, it leads to Nrf2 to continue and not be regulated. Nrf2 in malignant cells will provide an increase in chemoresistance and this will then facilitate cell growth of the tumor. When there is the overactivation of Nrf2 it is essentially affecting cell proliferation.
Many differences can be seen when comparing the photo C of both figures. In the original figure, all of the highlighted areas have labels and arrows pointing to them, while those are absent in the replicate figure. The lines that encircle the areas on the map are larger and less smooth in the replicate image. In addition to that, the circled areas of the original figure are completely filled in with the color, while in the replicate there is only color on the landmass encompassed by the circle. In the original photo, there are red, green, and purple stripes where all three areas overlap. However, in the replicate figure, there are only patterns of red and purple stripes and green and purple stripes, and no areas where all three of the colors are represented.
The replicate and original figures look somewhat similar, however they bear many differences. One difference is the labels in the corner of the images. In the original figure, the letters are black and have a white square behind them, while in the replicate figure the letters “A” and “B” are in white font, and the letter “C” is in black font. On the same note, the letters are bigger in the replicate figure. In addition to that, the background of the replicate figure is transparent, while the background of the original figure is white. In the original figure, there is no empty space in between photos A, B, and C. However, in the replicate, there is white space between photos A and B, and between photos B and C.
- 2 functions of the kidneys: get rid of waste material that are ingested or produced by metabolism and control volume and electrolyte composition of the body fluids
- what is the regulatory function of the kidneys: balance b/w intake (due to ingestion and metabolic production) and output (due to excretion and metabolic consumption) = maintains stable environment (homeostasis)
- filter plasma and filtrate by excreting them into the urine
- some products of metabolism that are eliminated as waste by the kidney: creatine, urea, uric acid, end products of hemoglobin breakdown and metabolites of various hormones
- also eliminate most toxins such as pesticides, drugs and food additives!
- excretion of water and electrolytes must match intake, intake depends on person's diet
- EX: response to daily rapid jump of sodium intake = kidneys have to later sodium excretion, in many people sodium intake can be increased 10x normal w/ relatively small changes in the ECF volume or plasma sodium concentration (otherwise sodium will accummulate and raise the ECF beyond normal causing hormonal changes and other responses to signal kidneys to increase sodium excretion)
- regulate arterial pressure, acid-base balance, erthroyte production, D3 production, and glucose synthesis
- blood flow to the 2 kidney is about 22% of cardiac output
- renal circulation has 2 capillary beds = glomerular and peritubular, arranged in series, separated by the efferent arterioles
- efferent arterioles lead from the glomerulus to the peritubular capillaries that surround the renal tubules (afferent arterioles lead to the the glomerulus)
- these arterioles help regulate the hydrostatic pressure in both sets of capillaries
- high hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries causes rapid fluid filtration
- a much lower hydrostatic in the peritubular capillaries permits rapid fluid reabsorption
There were some very significant differences between my figure and the figure that was replicated of mine. The first significant difference is the size of figure itself. The original figure being 2000x2000 pixel and the replicate being 300x200 pixels. In addition to the whole figure itself, each image itself in the multi-panel figure has much smaller dimensions in the replicate. Visually, size of both overall figure and individual images have a great difference. There was also much more white space between each image in the replicate than in the original figure that was used to divide each image in the figure.
Another major difference was the labeling of each image. In the replicate, there was an absence of labels in each image to distinguish them from one another. Meanwhile in the original, it contained image labeled, A, B, and C on the upper left-hand corner of each image to identify each.
A third major difference would be the difference in the images themselves. For image “A”, there was a difference in the angle or orientation at which the image was taken, both vertically and horizontally. Vertically, the replicate was taken at a much higher angle, taken at a close birds-eye-view. Horizontally, the replicate was taken in a direct line of sight as oppose to the original which was taken further left. The distance of the image taken relative to the plant was also greater in the replicate. For image “B” there were angle and distance differences as well. The vertical image angle of the replicate was directly above the flower, the original was lower in angle. The horizontal image angle is most noticeable. The replicate was taken at a horizontal 90-degree difference than the original. The distance, similar to image “A” was further in the replicate than the original.
The range map differences were quite noticeable as well, including the size, range, and color. The size of the range map in the replicate is much smaller as they included both North America and South America whole. In the original, it is focused primarily on South America where the plant range is limited to. The range of the plant on the replicate includes most of the Caribbean to include Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. The original does not extend the range through the Caribbean. The range map itself in the replicate has a white background as oppose to the original which has the original light grey color background.
Recently, scientists have been discovering that land based pathogens that are infecting humans, cows, and even cats, have also been discovered to be infecting the sea mammal population, as large numbers of dolphins, sharks, and seals have been washing up ashore dead or dying. Researchers have found that these strains of bacteria, commonly infecting people, are resistant to bacteria. For example; a harp seal containing the bacteria Chryseobacterium indologenes to was resistant to 13 out of the 16 drugs tested by scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Cape Cod. This is very alarming as surfers, fishermen, or anyone else who is active in ocean water can be exposed to these bacteria through open wounds or from oven digesting the water. Scientists such as Christopher Solomon describe these sea mammals as “swimming petri dishes”, as they hold the potential to nurture and transform these diseases until they re-emerge back into the human population even more advanced and resistant to antibiotics.
Summary of Pavlischek, “Abortion Logic and Paternal Responsibilities: One More Look at Judith Thomson’s ‘A Defense of Abortion’”
In this article, Pavlischek analyzes Thomson’s argument and analogies from her paper “A Defense of Abortion” to support his theory on the relationship between abortion and paternal care. Pavlischek believes that if women should have the option for on demand abortion, then men should not be legally required to care for a child which they declared they did not want.
1. Central Pro-life Argument and Corollary: Pavlischek begins by discussing the central argument in the pro-life view, which is that from the moment of conception the fetus is a human being. A fetus being a human being upon conception thus means that an abortion is taking a human life and the legal system should thus protect against such an act.
We can confidently say that the increase in mercury found in songbirds when eating spiders is due to biomagnification. This is the concept that consumers on higher trophic levels will consume more “magnified” amounts of trace elements, as their food also consumes other food rather than producing it. The reason that this happens is that when an organism consumes trace elements, or any substance that its body isn’t familiar with, the organism will hold much of that substance in its body and will have a hard time excreting it. Over time the substance builds up even though all of the “normal” waste is excreted. When the higher trophic level predators come and eat these organisms with elevated mercury, they will consume a large amount of mercury at once and will also not process it well, holding it in their bodies. This effect is why toxins tend to build up in larger amounts at the top of food chains
It is a pretty well known fact that as humans age the cognitive function of their brain degrades, as well. Certain disorders, diseases and other health aspects such as drug abuse or traumatic injuries can cause an increase in the degradation. However the mechanisms responsible for the normal degradation, outside of the injuries, drug abuse or disorders, is still relatively unknown. But a new research has shown that the decline in function may be a result of astrocyte dysfunction. Astrocytes help with the formation and elimination of synapses in the brain. In the study, done on mice, it was that the aging resulted in increased reactivity of astrocytese. This up-regulation of reactivity causes the astrocytes to lose their ability to carry out their normal functions and release toxins that destroy neurons. This loss of function change in the astrocytes results in cognitive degradtion and an increased possibility of traumatic brain injuries in aging brains.