Effects of tree management techniques were gathered by randomly selecting trees on the University of Massachusetts - Amherst campus and the surrounding area. Factors identified were
- Number of tree cavities: characterized as a semi-enfolded hallow that naturally has occurred within the trunk or branch of a tree.
- number of branches: counted from the main trunk of the observed tree
- understory diversity: characterized as the underlying layer of vegetation and measured at a maximum of 4 feet from the root of the trunk. Understory diversity also includes nests and species inhibited on the trunk or branches of the tree.
- human infrastructure: characterized as the distance from an area of the tree to the closest man-made structure. These structures included roads, pavement, cable wires, storm drains and buildings.