Another clinical trial was tested to show the impact of Whey protein intake on renal function. In a trial with 1624 women, a group with normal renal function and another with mild renal efficiency, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was used to estimate the kidney functionality and efficiency. This study was conducted over a 11-year span to further give valid conclusions. In conclusion of the 11-year trial, they found the GFR to be 0.25 mL/min per 1.73 m2 per 10g increase in protein intake as oppose to 1.14 mL/min per 1.73 m2. This conclusion states that high protein intake does not associate with a reduced renal functionality in women with normal renal function. However, it does increase the declination functionality rate of women who already have reduced renal function. This trial does have sufficient evidence and relevant to the represented topic because it shows the long-term effects of an increase protein intake on kidney function. The assumptions are valid because the trial size was large and over a long-time span which gives a more accurate conclusion (Knight et al. 2003).
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P. hydrobothynus is a sexually dimorphic species of otter. The male otters have very large and colorful mane made of orange, yellow, and red and a dark brown body with a white underside. They have a short stocky body, a short fat tail, and a much more robust pectoral girdle. Males are usually only 1 meter long, and 0.35 meters tall. The female otters are dark brown in color with a white underside and are camouflaged in the murky water and muddy banks. The female stellar river otters are built like a traditional river otter and are very streamline with a long wing-like tail, and a longer skinnier body. Females tend to be roughly 1.2 meters long, and are 0.2 m tall. The male and female both have very thick fur to stay dry and for insulation. The two sexes are so morphologically different they were first thought to be different species; however, a distinct red diamond pattern on the chest of this species was the first clue that the discoverers had in determining they were the same species.
Overall I felt this class taught me a variety of useful skills that I can apply in a number of different ways in the future. For instance proper time management and planning when it comes to writing drafts, editing as well as constructing projects. Also the use of various software programs such as R, Scribus, Inkscape, and text formatting. I also learned various writing skills and how to critically analyze my own as well as other peoples writing. In addition, I learned how to write and pay attention to detail, especially when it comes to formatting and use of language. One thing I wish I knew earlier in the class was how valuable it was to ask for help from the professor in terms of receiving feedback. I think I could have done much better on my Methods project if I had done so.
The purpose of our project was to study the windows and doors of Morill 4 south for signs of arthropod inhabitance. Arthropods are more commonly referred to as insects. The signs we were looking for included live bugs, dead bugs, exoskeletons, webs and/or any cracks or openings that could be used as access points for them. We took two recordings a few days apart hoping to see a change in the number of signs present. In the graphs in the middle of the poster you can see the relationship between the various signs (dead bugs, live bugs and spider webs) and the distance from the window sill or door to the reptile located on the 5th floor in Morill. In general based on the graphs you can see that the number of signs of arthropods increased as the location got closer to the reptile room. We believe the reason for this is because of the luxury effect, which describes ecosystems shaped completely by human interaction. In this scenario more sign of arthropods were found on the fourth floor because there is less foot traffic on the third and fourth floor as compared to first and second floor.
Over the past few years, mail-in DNA testing kits have become exceptionally popular. These kits can be used in several ways. Some kits are focused for those who wish to learn more about their family history. People can use these testing services, which use their DNA to compare in massive proprietary databases, to discover where their family comes from. My own DNA showed ethnicity estimates in seven different regions. I had always thought I was almost completely Irish, but thanks to my DNA test, I now know that is not the case. Websites like AncestryDNA can also be used to help you create a family tree which, with the help of U.S. Census reports and other documents, can trace back your family for generations. I was able to find out about family members from five generations back. Your family tree can also become linked to other family trees when you have ancestors in common. AncestryDNA will also use you DNA test to find other members that your test indicates you are related to you. Ancestry found 159 predicted third and fourth cousins from my test. Other Websites, like 23 and Me, can analyze your DNA to inform you about health conditions. This can be taken further by using you genomic DNA in the website Promethease, which uses studied SNP’s to tell you what your genotype indicates. Here you can find out if you’re more of less likely to have certain diseases. Other SNP’s will indicate if things such as your muscle fiber make up.
Genetic defects in alpha receptors tend to have normal thyroid hormone levels. Scientists found this by screening many people, as they did not initially know what to look for. Since cardiovascular problems are common, this could not have been used as a screening tool for someone with alpha receptor defects. Instead, they used the hypathalmic-pituitary-thyroid hormone pathway as it is very sensitive to hormone defects. Of the hormones, T4 is the most abundant hormone in the blood, however T3 is the biologically active form. T4 is transported actively across the cell membrane into the cytoplasm and the receptor is already bound to DNA in the un-liganded form. Overall, the symptoms of thyroid disease are variable; two people with this disease are likely to have very little symptom overlap.
We were interested in analyzing the water quality of the stream by the Sylvan residence halls. Research has shown that the levels and diversity of periphyton found in the water could be used as a way to analyze the overall health of the water. Periphyton is a broad term, consisting of algae, cyanobacteria, and other microscopic organisms living in the water. We created a method to collect samples of periphyton by placing three glass slides held together into the water. We placed these slides at three different locations in the stream, and collected samples after one week and after two weeks. We found that the levels of periphyton collected increased over the two weeks, and used the Shannon Index to quantify the diversity and abundance. We found that one of the three locations had a significantly higher number of total periphyton.
Two adenine deficient plates were then divided into four sections each. The first plate was labeled with HA0, HA1, HA2, and HB1, and had each quadrant’s corresponding yeast type lightly spread onto it. The second plate was labeled with HB1xHA0, HB1xHA1, HA1xHA2, and HB1xHA2, and had each quadrant’s corresponding yeast cross from the incubated plate lightly spread onto it. For the spreading process, a clean toothpick was used to drag a small amount of the required yeast in a straight line near the edge of the plate. Then a new toothpick was used to drag a single line up from the first line of yeast cells and then spread them in a zig zag fashion. The goal of this process was to spread the yeast cells to roughly one cell thickness. The two adenine deficient agar plates were then left to incubate at 30oC for a week.
Flavivirus is a genus of viruses that includes west Nile virus and cause severe disease such as yellow fever. Flavivirus genomic RNA replication occurs on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, in membranous compartments, and the focus of Dr. Chao and his advisor Dr. Stephen Harrison’s research at Harvard was the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Cellular entry by the virus requires this membrane fusion and in order to do so, viral fusion proteins undergo dramatic conformational rearrangements. These proteins must undergo conformational changes to create a thermodynamically favorable chemical reaction and overcome the energetic barriers to merge the two membranes and create hemisfusion. They discovered that the envelope protein comprised of three main domains, with one being largely hydrophobic and involved in the fusion loop. In its pre-fusion state, the hydrophobic domain is tucked in the protein, however the hydrophobic domain extends into cell membrane then collapses to bring membrane together and create hemifusion and full pore opening.
The authors are using human models to test the questions posed. There were specific guidelines as to be able to join this study. The patients had to be between the ages of 18 to 70. They having to diagnosed by two to three study psychiatrists with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar II as it is defined in the Structured Clinical Interview in the DSM-IV. The patients have to had a depressive episode of at least 12 months duration and have previously tried four antidepressant treatments prior to the study. They also have to have an intolerance to electroconvulsive therapy or were unable to receive it. The patients also needed to have a score of 20 or higher on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Right before operation, the patients also need to have a score of 20 or higher across four weeks before the operation. The participants also need a score of 50 or less on the Global Assessment of Functioning. Although there were criteria to exclude participation. Patients could not have another medical or psychiatric disorder. The patients could not had substance use within the past twelve months, or a suicide attempt within the last 6 months of twice within the past two years. The patients could not be pregnant during the study. The reason that humans rather than animals were chosen for the clinical trials is because it would be very difficult to replicate in animals. The study is based on having the patients describe how they feel emotionally which cannot be reproduced in animals.