There is clinical evidence that oncogene addiction exists. This could be seen in CML. CML is referred as Chronic myeloid leukemia. This involves chromosome 22 and an abnormality. A translocation event happens between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22 and there are RAG’s. When there is a mutation it causes RAG to cut some of the Abl gene and more of the Bcr gene. When combined it forms a changed chromosome 22 (Philadelphia chromosome). CML is essentially driven by the BCR-ABL mutant oncogene so it is addicted. This was demonstrated in patients through the clinical responses attained with the kinase inhibitor imatinb, which targets BCR-ABL. It is further supported by genetic mechanisms of resistance that vastly led to reactivation of BCR-ABL kinase activity. Another example is antiandrogens and using them for the treatment of prostate cancers, which are known to be ‘lineage addicted’ to AR and have recurrent AR amplifications or mutations upon resistance to first line therapeutic techniques.
Oncogenes are essentially dominant growth enhancing genes and if overexpressed can augment growth in one cell type but impede growth or stimulate programmed cell death in another cell type. The phenomenon of oncogene addiction describes cancer cell dependence on individual oncogenes to sustain the malignant phenotype. Oncogenic functions are activated by them. Cancer cell survival relies on quite a few key genetic driver events. When an oncogene is turned off this means that the cancer cells will undergo programmed cell death. For instance, in transgenic mice when there is the expression of an inducible form of the H-ras oncogene it develops melanomas. When the ras gene was switched off apoptosis occurred and regressed. Another instance is with the expression of a Bcr-Abl fusion gene which results in the development of leukemia and killed mice. When switched off, even at advanced stages of disease, the leukemic cells underwent rapid apoptosis and this resulted in mice surviving. In cancer cells the regulation of signal transduction and gene expression is rather crazy and distinct of normal cells. Since they have a different form of regulation it is said that cancer cells may be more reliant on the activity of specific oncogenes. In addition, they are more sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of specific tumor suppressor genes like p53 versus normal cells.
I found both articels that we were tasked with reading this week very interesting, they were also very similar in the way they were structured. After reading chapter 7 the reason for the similarities is quite obvious, it allows a logical and strong flow of ideas and makes it easier for the readers to understand the topics at hand. As for specific simlarites scene one example is the the level one headers of both articles contained the title of the paper, the authors and the publication information. The level 2 headers of the papers preceded to contain the section descriptions, such as introduction or abstract and are placed when a new topic or study is about to be discussed. When each section was broken down and looked at the similarites continued to appear. For the papers each section is structured similar to the way of the whole paper is but in an abbreviated version obviously, they have intro paragraphs, normally the first paragraph of each section, to introduce the information and then the sections continue on, providing new statistics and information. Each section was also responsible for providing new information and statistics of the overall topic. As for the individual paragraphs they each had a topic sentence to either transition the paragraphs or introduce a new topic. This methodical structure and the similarities seen throughout the scientific field allow the ideas to be very logically organized and flow well. And the fact that each sentence continues to build on the idea presented in the second header and the topic sentence of the specific paragraph really assists the reader in understanding the overall point of the paper.
The next section of for the widely distributed native and non-native article is the materials where they first talk about the species they have selected for this and from what sources they were gathering the information from, followed by the traits that were relevant to the distribution of the species being observed. Finally, it mentions the trait interaction model which is used to determine the frequency of grid-cells a species occupied in connection to the train they have and interactions. This section went from broad to specific, from what species down to the specific trait interactions. The purpose of this section is to let the audience know where and how they were going about this problem or hypothesis so the audience could try to get the same results with the same sources and therefore data that the author used in this. The first paragraph of this section is used to give the audience the understanding of where they are gathering their main data from, from which outside database they used to get the data broad numbered data.
The article on the Baltic Sea have the same purpose for this section although it doesn’t explicitly administer that is the materials and methods. However, it still includes what is used in this section. It is also structured the same way by first mentioning how the non-native species were brought into the Baltic, then going into the rate of invasion currently and the number of species and their dispersal rate. The first paragraph in this section is used to give the origin of the problem, in contrast with the first article I mentioned, this article gives an even broader start to the problem, beginning with how this started.
My first draft about the two assigned articles for this week talks about their structures. After reading chapter 7 in our books this morning on what the overall structure of our papers should conform to, I got a clearer understanding on the purpose of our assignment. The structures of the different sections play a big role in the flow, clarity and what we want our reader to know is important. In this draft, I would like to compare the introductions of both of the articles. Before doing that, I would like to point out the biggest difference between these articles. The article from the Ecology Matters journal is about an experiment performed by the researchers that includes a materials and methods section. The authors of the other article (the Biological Invasions publication) have not performed an experiment but rather have formulated a hypothesis, collected information from other articles and tried to "answer" their hypothesis. Therefore these articles will have different structures because of the underlying purpose of each. However, since I am comparing introductions, I am going to assume that they are similar since all introductions serve the same the purpose such as to contain the background information, state the hypothesis and introduce the purpose. Some things that our textbook points out that sound be included in the structure of the introduction are: funnel-shape organization with the known, first paragraph to be the background, the second to last paragraph to be unknown and the last paragraph to be the question/purpose and maybe the significance.
The first paragraph of the introduction in the article from the Ecology Matters journal starts with very general background information such as why one should study non-native species, funnels to a more specific background such as why/how this is being studied and by whom. The second to last paragraph contains phrases that are lead to be the unknown such as "should be." The structure of the last paragraph contains the the purpose and the hypothesis. However, it doesn't contain the experimental approach which I am going to assume is probably in the methods section. I liked the structure of their introduction but it would be helpful to know how they approached their question.
The first paragraph of the introduction of the other article also begins off broad and then the subsequent paragraphs become more specific with information that pertains to their research. It is interesting how their first sentence underlies their purpose just like in the other article. The second to last paragraph doesn't contain any unknowns which is probably because this is not an experiment. The last paragraph is very short and contains only the experimental approach.
The two articles, Origin matter: widely distributed native and non-native species benefit from different functional traits and Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea, both are similarly structured. The level one heading for each article is the title of the article and the authors who wrote the article. The level two heading are the different parts of the article such as the abstract, introduction, etc. Each section of the articles have an introduction into what the authors will be discussing in that section. At the end of each section there is transition sentence that leads into a new section. Overall, the flow of ideas is smooth and each section is connected even though the paragraphs present different information. The information in each paragraph help present all the points the author is trying to present to the reader. The way each paragraph is constructed is concise with precise language that presents the experiment and the findings of the experiment.
One can determine an ancestral or derived trait based on the outgroup. The outgroup has a character state of zero for all traits listed in the data. The traits that are given the zero state are the ancestral traits which are present in the outgroup and used to disguise the morphology of the different animals. In the case of non-retractable and retractable claws, non-retractable claws was given the state of zero therefore in the out-group and ancestral.
I predict that the D. gliroides would shift its range where there are colder temperatures. I believe that this species would move its range more southern to cooler temperatures if its optimal survival range is in cooler temperatures. Although, if the optimal survival range is in hotter temperature then the D. gliroides would move northern to warmer temperatures. I base this prediction on the fact that animals will migrate to areas in which their survival is higher.
When dealing with carrying capacity, the theme of competition arises. Competition in ecology is the struggle for resources between other organisms within an ecosystem, as they’re all fighting to survive and thrive. In the DVD, Race, the Power of an Illusion, we learned a great deal about the idea of racism. Over time we have developed the idea that whites were the superior race to african americans, asians, latinos, native americans, etc. After settling into the US, agriculture became the way of living. As a result, the demand for workers rose significantly. At first, the lower class europeans served as indentured servants until the demand outweighed the supply, thus slavery was introduced. Slavery gave landowners a cheap alternative to the use of indentured servants and made the use of indentured servants expendable. Competition rose for those lower class europeans and demanded that they become a higher job than the african american slaves. As a result, many of these lower class europeans became overseers.
Ecology can be broken down into many specific kinds of ecologies. The broader definition of ecology is the study of the interaction between living things and their environment. One of the specific kinds of ecologies that we’re going to focus on is human ecology, which is the study of relationships and interactions among humans, their biology, their cultures, and their physical environments. A key idea in ecology is the idea of carrying capacity. In order to understand carrying capacity, we must define what an ecosystem is. An ecosystem is a geographically bounded system within a defined group of organisms interact with both abiotic and biotic components of the environment. With the definition of an ecosystem in mind, carrying capacity is the number of organisms an ecosystem can support or “carry” which is determined by the amount of resources available and by organisms interactions. This concept surreptitiously serves as a huge factor in a lot of human decisions and ideas including one of the most significant ideas: racism.