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Submitted by mduque on Fri, 02/23/2018 - 15:13

Optogenetics refers to the biological technique which involves the use of light to control neurons. These neurons are genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. Precise neural control is achieved by using channelrhodopsin, halorhodopsin, and other similar opsins that function as light-gated ion channels. Channelrhodopsins excite neurons while halorhodopsin inhibits them.  This method has to act and operate precisely and quickly in order to allow addition or deletion of specific activity patterns within cells. In order to keep up with optical control, reporter proteins are used, enabling the fused fluorescent proteins to detect the selected neurons. This advancement is now giving humanity the ability to alter the activity of specific types of neurons. Depression, a huge problem in the U.S, for example can be possibly treated with optogenetics. MRI images have suggested parts the brains of people who have depression look different than those without it. Since dopamine and serotonin have shown to be important in cognition, motivation, drug addiction and psychiatric disorders, stimulation by LED light at the wavelength of blue light to activate channelrhodopsin expressed in targeted dopamine neurons in the mid-brain should be extensively studied. That is, it is now technically possible to study what the activation and deactivation of specific neurotransmitters in this part of the brain does.



I don't think you need "that is" in the last sentence of the paragraph. 

The placement of "for example" doesn't make much sense, I would suggest putting that at the start of the sentence

“Depression, a huge problem in the U.S…” seems rather informal, and instead it may be better to say that depression “effects many people in the U.S…”