The plumage characteristics in the phylogenies and the table were chosen based off of the color patterns of specific anatomical positions of the bird. Most of the positions were in areas that would be easy to see from far away, or that might be used in species recognition. In addition, the majority of the plumage characteristics were classified by if they were colored brightly, colored cryptically, or multicolored. In our table characteristics were mapped out using a numerical system to indicate if they had a specific trait or if the trait was absent. Some plumage characteristics were given a binary code of 0', and 1's while others used 0's, 1's, and 2's. If the color was also involved in the identified characteristic the box was colored the same color. On the phylogeny, the characteristics were only mapped if they were present. If the characteristic was not there it was left blank. In addition, if the trait was colored it was given a colored bar of that color to see if it was a significant factor in species differentiation.