In this experiment, 0.928 g of 3-methylbutyl propanoate were synthesized via a reaction between 0.973 mL of propanoic acid and 1.194 mL of 3-methyl-1-butanol. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst. The percent yield of the product is 58.51%. The 3-methylbutyl propanoate was purified and the identity confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR). The measured IR had a peak of 1751.361cmwhich confirms the ester although the value is slightly high. The IR also had peaks of 2980.02 1cm and 2873.94 1cmwhich indicate an alkyl CH stretch. 3-methylbutyl propanoate is an ester with a carbon chain and so these results are consistent with the product. The reactants, propanoic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and sulfuric acid are all refluxed and the product of this distilled to ensure that the product is as pure as possible. There was also a peak of 3552.88 1cm which was an abnormal OH stretch and signifies that too much 3-methyl-1-butanol was added to the original mixture that did not evaporate during the reflux period, making the product impure. An electric pipet may have helped to eliminate measurement mistakes and prevent this abnormality.
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Propanoic acid (0.973 mL, 13.0 mmol) and 3-methyl-1-butanol (1.194 mL, 11.0 mmol) were added at a 10 mL round bottom flask (RBF) along with 4 drops of sulfuric acid. The round bottom flask was attached to a reflux condenser with a distillation column pointing at a 45° angle. The mixture was refluxed for 15 minutes and the upper phase was then tipped back into the reaction flask. This was repeated twice more. The mixture was then removed from the heat and cooled for 15 minutes. The mixture was then pipetted into a centrifuge tube. The mixture was washed with water (1 X 1.00 mL). The mixture was then washed with sodium bicarbonate (2 mL, 2.6 mmol) twice. Lastly the mixture was washed with sodium chloride (1 mL, 3.69 mmol). The organic product was pipetted into a vial and ~20 CaCl2 spheres were added. The mixture sat for 5 minutes. The product (0.928 g, 58.51%) was then pipetted into a dry tared capped vial. Infrared spectroscopy was then performed.
“We are formed by our environment, and our environment is formed by us”. Mammals are influenced by climate, changing geography, and plants, and the environment is also influenced by mammals. One example of this is the mammoth, which adapted to its surroundings over time and this eventually led to their demise. The most primitive species of mammoths had fewer ridges on their teeth while more recent species developed more ridges as more abrasive foods became available. Woolly mammoths, related to the Columbian mammoth that we observed at the museum, had long fur to insulate it from the cold since it lived in an ice age. There is speculation that the extinction of woolly mammoths caused human-driven climate change due to changes in vegetation relating to global temperatures. Tree leaves were formed after their extinction which absorb more solar radiation than grass. The history of horses in North America is another example of the environment affecting a species and the species affecting the environment. The Spanish re-established horses in North America in the 1500s after they had gone extinct 8,000 years before. The original North American horses underwent evolution over time as their environment changed, and they grew larger as forests turned into grassy plains. Today, there are concerns about mustangs damaging the biotic crusts of the grasslands, causing erosion that scientists believe will cause the replacement of grasslands with rock. Sometimes, this two-way evolution is not a positive development.
- https://f1000research.com/posters/7-350 (Bioinformatics training and education: towards a sustainable global network)
—I was drawn in by this poster right away due to the rainbow color of the umbrella and how it was laid out clearly twice.
—Layed out nicely and separated in different boxes, grouping together like information
—Generally looks very cohesive as the boxes are all the same color, easy on the eye
—However, sections were not clearly labeled
—relatively simple and looks like it could take up more space
- https://f1000research.com/posters/7-212 (The CINSARC signature predicts clinical outcome in multiple cancer types)
--very organized, each section is labeled clearly and the colors are consistent within their sections
—space is taken up but not overly crowded
—many diagrams, and many different types, many are very small (too small?)
—title could stand out more
3.https://f1000research.com/posters/7-202 (Trends in non-polio acute flaccid paralysis incidence in India 2000-2013)
—sections are clearly labeled
—uses only different shades of the same color, too monotone
—format is basically just columns and not very interesting to look at
—sections clearly labeled
—colors are cohesive or consistent within their sections
—perfectly spaced and just enough information
—sections not clearly labeled
—title/topic does not stand out
—colors are scattered/clash and don’t please the eye
“We are formed by our environment, and our environment is formed by us”. Mammals are influenced by climate, changing geography, and plants, and the influence their surroundings. One example of this is the Columbian mammoth, which adapted to its surroundings over time and lived 5 million—4,500 years ago. The primitive species of mammoths had fewer ridges on their teeth while newer species evolved with more ridges as more abrasive foods because available. Woolly mammoths, related to Columbian mammoths, had long fur to insulate it from the cold since it lived in an ice age. Another example of the environment affecting a species and the species affecting the environment are horses in North America. The Spanish re-established horses in North America in the 1500s after they had gone extinct 8,000 years before. The original North American horses underwent evolution over time as their environment changed, and they grew larger as forests turned into grassy plains. Today, there are concerns about mustangs damaging the biotic crusts of the grasslands, causing erosion. Sometimes, this two-way evolution is not a positive development.
The melting point of this recrystallization could not be obtained due to the fact that no melting was observed after it was heated to 160 °C. This could be due to impurities, contamination, or the incorrect measurement of reactants. The second recrystallization’s MP shoulder higher because more impurities should be removed after the second recrystallization, however it should only be higher by a couple degrees. Trimyristin is a saturated fat found in coconut oil, palm oil, and nutmeg. Through hydrolysis of trimyristin, myristic acid was obtained. Myristic acid is a fatty acid commonly found in coconut oil, palm oil, and other beauty products, and because of this it is vital to obtain the purest form of myristic acid during isolation. This is why it is best to obtain myristic acid from natural sources.
The crude trimyristin was recrystallized twice in order to produce a more pure version of trimyristin. The percent recovery of the first recrystallization was 8.94%. The reason that the percent recovery is so low is due to the fact that the initial amount of nutmeg, 1.029 g, is included as the starting material. The melting point of the first recrystallization was 52-53°C. The listed MP of trimyristin is 56-57°C, and thus the obtained melting point is lower than the listed MP. This could be due to impurities within the mixture. The second recrystallization of trimyristin yielded a percent recovery of 0.972%.
Hydrolysis using trimyristin (0.06 g, 0.083 mmol), 6M NaOH (2 mL, 0.107 mol), and ethanol (2 ML, 95%) was performed for 45 minutes. The flask was then cooled to room temperature and the contents poured into a 50 mL beaker with water (8.0 mL). HCl (2 mL, 81.7 mmol) was then added dropwise. The beaker was cooled in ice water for 10 minutes and the final product of myristic acid (0.032 g, 3.28%) was collected via suction filtration. The melting point of trimyristin was taken at the first recrystallization (52-53 °C) and the second (not observed). The melting point of the final product, myristic acid (52-53 °C) was also taken.
Nutmeg (1.029 g) tert-butyl methyl ether (3 mL, 25.18 mmol) and was added in a 10 mL round bottomed flask and boiled for 10 minutes. The mixture was cooled for 3 minutes and filtered in a micro-scale filtration system pipet-ful at a time. After this was completed, tert-butyl methyl ether (2 mL, 16.79 mmol) was added to the same round bottomed flask and it was then warmed, left to settle, and filtered. The filtered solution was then dried to yield the crude product (0.109 g, 10.9%). Acetone (10 mL, 0.136 mmol) was added to the flask and the solution was recrystallized. The solution was then collected via suction filtration to yield the trimyristin of the first recrystallization (0.092 g, 8.94%). A second recrystallization was performed on the trimyristin (0.010 g, 0.972%).
One reason why scientists should choose to vaccinate a German Shepherd female is that German Shepherds are among the most intellgient dog breeds. Growing up, I witnessed this display of intelligence. Both of my German Shepherds learned how to open doors with their paws without being trained to do so. My current dog picks up his food bowl when he is hungry and nudges the water bowl when it’s empty. They both only required a couple weeks of training, whereas my other dogs, Labradors, required twice as much time. They not only make smart family pets, but are also fundamental components of the military, police stations, and disability services. As said from My Assistance Dog Inc, “They’re also incredibly sharp, observant, courageous, trainable, and loyal, which makes them the leading choice for working dogs used by the military, police, TSA, border patrol, and other law enforcement agencies”. This website also discusses how they also have long history as guide dogs and assistant dogs to people with disabilities due to their trainibility. All of these institutions require serious concentration and reliability and thus these dogs are essential assets to humanity.