CRISPR/ Cas9 PP

Submitted by jnduggan on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 18:25

CRISPR/Cas9 has been getting attention recently due to research that found it to be a possible new tool used in genome editing. The research surrounding CRISP/ Cas9 has the potential to change the world of controlled genome editing. New studies are observing if the genome editing can be deemed as a successful option for further research on humans.

     The CRISPR/Cas9 mechanism is comprised of two parts. The regulatory sector of the system is an RNA guide which is programmed to create a sequence that matches the desired DNA sequence. The RNA guide is then bound to Cas9, a protein that has the ability to make double stranded DNA breaks. When the RNA regulatory sector binds to the Cas9 protein, they search through the DNA to find the programmed sequence that matches the RNA sequence. When the RNA sequence binds to the DNA's complementary sequence, Cas9 can make a cut. The cut in DNA allows for the DNA to be edited. Mutations can be corrected, new genes can be inserted, or certain genes can be removed from the human genome.

Orgo Esterification discussion

Submitted by bthoole on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 18:03

After the solution was refluxed to worked up to remove the water, the final product was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy. The spectroscopy analysis provided peaks that correspond to that of an ester, which is what was expected and can confirm the esterification process in the synthesis of 1-propyl propionate. The IR spectrum showed a peak just to the right of 3000 cm-1 at 2972.43 cm-1. This peak corresponds to the alkyl carbon-hydrogen bond in the ester. The stretch that starts at peak 1740.83 cm-1 is a measurement of the double bond between carbon and oxygen. These are the results that would be seen in a sample of pure ester, but the IR spectrum also gives peak values above 3000 cm-1, which suggests impurities containing a hydroxyl oxygen and hydrogen bond. The peak is highest at 3453.69 cm-1. This impurity could be a result of left-over water or a result of alcohol contamination from the 1-propanol.

Draft Post

Submitted by jnduggan on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 17:56

Even after abortions became illegal in the US, women continued to have them. Practitioners did their work behind closed doors or in private homes. Women without financial means often resorted to dangerous or deadly measures.   Although Roe v. Wade made abortion nationally legal in 1973, over 1,074 restrictive laws have been passed by states in efforts to make abortion as inaccessible as possible. More than a quarter of these laws were passed between 2014 and 2015. If history repeats itself, we could see a resurgence of unsafe abortion practices in the United States.

This reading touches different informed consent laws and the intent and impact of implementing such laws. Neoliberalism also increases the state’s power over women’s bodies through increased abortion restrictions and control over medicine.

Informed consent laws vary greatly from state to state, so even though nationally abortion is legal, many boundaries such as the social pressures implicated by informed consent can arise.

 
 

warbler methods

Submitted by kruzzoli on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 15:25

As a group, we observed photos of warblers from the Setophega worksheet. To begin, a series of 12 common plumage characteristics for the warblers were identified. We choose to observe the presence of wing bars, if the bird had a short or long beak, the color of the throat, eye ring color, belly color, feet color, the presence of yellow feathers, the presence of bright colored feathers, rump coloration, the presence of a curved beak, if the bird had more than two feather colors, and if the crown was a different color than the body. We observed the photographs and the skin museum to observe each species and categorize the plumage characteristics.  Coloration differences were shown by changing the color of the cell within the table of data, the color of the cell matched the color of the plumage. The presence of wing bars, yellow feathers, bright colored feathers, more than two feather colors, and a matching crown were indicated by a 1 for yes. A 0 indicated a no. A short beak was categorized by a 0 and a long beak was categorized by a 1. After evaluating each of the 33 species of Warblers for the set of characteristics determined, four of the patterns were chosen to apply to a phylogenetic tree.

methods

Submitted by kruzzoli on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 14:31

We completed a time analysis budget using Jwatcher to indicate when certain behaviors occurred in different contexts. We watched the same 48 minutes and 55 seconds of videos that was used to create the sequential analysis and the behavior tables. We observed the behaviors of only the foals. We observed behaviors and grouped them into five categories that we defined as comfort, locomotion, grooming, feeding, and playing. Comfort included behaviors that comforted the horse, such as tail waving. Locomotion were behaviors that involved the foal moving to a new location. Grooming included bevaiors such as licking or any cleaning of the foal. Feeding was defined by behaviors where the horse fed and playing involved interactions with other foals. These behaviors were defined by the context of who was involved, either alone, including the mare, or including another foal. We used jwatcher to record when each behavior occurred and the context of each behavior. We used the data to analyze the proportion of time the foals spent doing each behavior in each context and the amount of behaviors done in each category in each context. We used a bar graph to display our results.

 

Ecology Short Essay #2 Draft Part 1

Submitted by sbrownstein on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 13:32

The healthcare field has always interested me since a young age. The science classes I had taken in grade school have always been a priority to me due to my drive to explore the field. My father is a doctor and that may have influenced my interest path due to my exposure to the medical field at such an early stage in my life. I am a biology major and hope to eventually go to school to become a Physician Assistant. I aspire to be a Physician Assistant because I strive to make a difference in people’s lives everyday. By being a PA, I would be doing something I enjoy while helping people. Due to my focus in the medical field, I enjoy the classes such as anatomy and physiology, public health, and microbiology. Yet, ecology can play a role in the medical field in many ways that are not as obvious as one may think.

 

Draft Post

Submitted by jnduggan on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 01:19

Crispr/Cas9 has come into the spotlight due to recent research, where it has been found to be a possible new tool in genome editing. The possibilities are endless in what can be done with controlled genome editing but to begin the journey on deeming it a successful option further research on humans must occur.

     The Crispr/Cas9 mechanism essential is comprised of two parts. The regulatory part of the system is a RNA guide which is programmed to sequence to match a desired DNA sequence. The RNA guide is then bound to Cas9, a protein that has the ability to make double stranded DNA breaks. When the two are together, they essentially search through the DNA looking for the programmed sequence, and once the RNA binds to the DNA, Cas9 can make the cut. The cut in DNA allows for the ability to correct mutation, insert new genes, or remove certain genes from the human genome.

 

comments 10

Submitted by cdkelly on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 00:05

It's interesting that the centrosome cycle can simultaneously occur with the other processes of replication. When I think about all of these different processes, it becomes difficult to picture all of these different proteins acting simultaneously with one another to complete massively complex procedures. Also, this is happening across millions of cells at the same time and the overall orchestration is hard to picture.

    These processes must occur in a sequential order. If they somehow began too early or in the wrong order, the consequences within the cell would be devastating. For example, if M-phase began before S-phase was complete, the resulting daughter cells would be deprived of a number of chromosomes and become destined for cell-death. Perhaps overregulation of specific cyclins could lead to something like this.



 

Comments 9

Submitted by cdkelly on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 00:04

It's fascinating that the entire set of 23 chromosome pairs can be copied during S phase. Thinking about all of the components that must be produced to facilitate this replication is complicated. For instance, in order for the DNA to wrap up into chromosomes, the quaternary histone protein and all of its substituents must be synthesized and present. In addition, all of the chromosomal arrangement must be orchestrated by a large number of proteins and chemical interactions must occur. Overall, the entire process is a lot to think about.

    The interactions between CDKs and cyclins are extremely important to the cell cycle and highly organized. Since different phases of the cell cycle are dependent on the levels of cyclins, and consequently CDKs, there must be a large number of them. In addition, they must be produced at critical and specific moments throughout. The amount of involved proteins must be relatively high.

These processes must occur in a sequential order. If they somehow began too early or in the wrong order, the consequences within the cell would be devastating. For example, if M-phase began before S-phase was complete, the resulting daughter cells would be deprived of a number of chromosomes and become destined for cell-death. Perhaps overregulation of specific cyclins could lead to something like this.

 

Abstract RD

Submitted by cwcasey on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 00:02

Morgan horses at the Hadley Farm in Amherst, Massachusetts were observed in order to generate an ethogram in which various behaviors, bouts, and states could be analyzed. For the purpose of this project, we focused specifically on the foals and their interactions with other foals and their mother. Their fathers were not present at the time and so many behaviors could not be observed in which a foal may exhibit in the presence of its father. This project was conducted under the idea that we would be able to organize and categorize the foals behavior into tables which would then allow us to run a reliability test, time budget analysis, and a sequential analysis. These tests would help further understand the horses intention and even allow us to predict what behaviors the horse exhibits in a certain sequence. After coming through 180 minutes of footage of the horses, their behaviors were recorded by multiple group members, cross analyzed, and sorted accordingly. In total, 62 behaviors were observed and they spanned through five distinct categories. After obtaining a reliability test across 10 minutes of footage and focusing on several distinct behavior types and bout, we reached a peak reliability range of  35-50. The time budget analysis showed that feeding behaviors along side the foals mother are most prevalent whereas play behaviors exhibit the lowest proportion of time. Thus, we concluded that the foals exhibit unique behaviors depending on their environment, if they are alone or not, and who they are in the proximity of.

 

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