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Submitted by sditelberg on Fri, 09/14/2018 - 15:34

In the morning, at approximately 7 AM, I woke up and got ready for the day. This consisted of first turning off my alarm and making some oatmeal in the microwave. I enjoyed this breakfast while relaxing watching YouTube videos. At this time I also took my morning pills and drank some water. After finishing breakfast, I decided to take a shower and grabbed my shower caddy along with my towel. During my shower I washed my body and combed through my hair with the help of some conditioner. After drying off and putting up my hair, I got dressed back in my room and brushed my teeth. I double-checked my bag to make sure everything was packed for the day and left the dorm.

Group 5 - Sarah and Marzia

Submitted by sditelberg on Fri, 09/14/2018 - 13:57

Our group's website was Upon first glance, this website appears to function like a reputable news source. However, there are a few aspects of this website that lead us to doubt its reliability, validity, and trustworthiness. At the top of the page, it says "News. Truth. Unfiltered." This leads us to doubt its trustworthiness since the website feels the need to explicitly state that it can be trusted. In our past experiences, reliable news sources allow the validity of the articles to speak for themselves, contributing to their trustworthiness. A lot of the titles of the articles seem far-fetched, which instills some doubt in how valid the articles truly are. For example, "Dalai Lama Says Europe Belongs to Europeans; Migrants Should Return Home" is one of the articles showcased on the website. It is written by Baxter Dmitry, and it seems like a lot of the articles are written like blog posts. Some of the same authors show up but it is unclear as to who they actually are, which decreases its validity. There is also a tab on the main page of the website that allows visitors to inquire about advertising, which seems to suggest that the website values commercializing the news over providing valid and reliable information for readers. The authors and editors of the website also make numerous spelling and grammar errors, and images used are cartoonish. All of the factors above lead us to question the trustworthiness, validity, and reliability of this news source.


reliability, validity, trustworthiness.

Structure of Literature, Part 3

Submitted by sditelberg on Fri, 09/14/2018 - 12:32

In the scope of a few paragraphs, each article reads with a different tone and purpose. Although the topic sentences of each serve a similar function, the flow and ideas of each differ. At times, the review article reads like an encyclopedia and at other times it reads as a criticism or evaluation. In contrast, the research article reads like a persuasive presentation of scientific data. I was surprised by just how much tone matters in scientific writing. Although scientific writing is fact-based, the tone of either a research paper or review article must be carefully worded to eliminate bias. I definitely need to be careful in my scientific writing and tailor it to sound not only professional, but also unbiased and organized in such a way that gets my intention of writing across.

Continuation of Structure Activity

Submitted by sditelberg on Fri, 09/14/2018 - 08:31

In the research article, the sections are broken down into the generic sequence: introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. In contrast, the review article starts with an introduction, but then moves on to sections classified by content-based topics. The sections of the review article contain content that may be found in the results section of a research article, albeit less formal. In the research article, the first paragraph of each section serves as an introduction to the section itself and summarizes it to a degree. The first paragraph of each section in the review article addresses certain research studies and begins to critique and compare them with one another. The in-text citations of each article also differ in the manner in which they are presented. In the research article, the in-text citations are used in the introduction to provide background information and context in an effort to inform the reader about the scope of the project. In the review article, the citations are utilized throughout each section for factual evidence and to give the reader a perspective on the studies being reviewed.

Perfect Paragraph - Week 2

Submitted by sditelberg on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 23:52

In DNA replication, the enzyme RNA primase adds a RNA primer to both DNA strands available. These primers serve as a basis for DNA polymerase III to bind to in order to begin adding new base pairs. DNA polymerase III works along both strands of parent DNA, not only adding new bases but also proofreading along the way by removing incorrect ones and replacing them with the correct ones. Once both strands have been replicated, DNA polymerase I replaces the initial RNA primers with the corresponding DNA sequence. A final molecule, DNA ligase, works to seal the gaps between any remaining base pairs. 

Structure of Scientific Literature

Submitted by sditelberg on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 23:45

It is important to recognize the differences between writing styles in scientific literature when referencing sources, understanding concepts, and conducting research. The articles assigned serve as great examples of two different types: research and review. The research article, “Influence of Prey Movement on the Performance of Simple Detours by Jumping Spiders,” has a more formal layout than the review article, “Spider-Ant Associations: An Updated Review of Myrmecomorphy, Myrmecophily, and Myrmecophagy in Spiders,” although they have some similarities. Both articles have level 1 and level 2 headings that further specify the contents of certain sections. For example, the research article has a level 1 heading for “Materials and Methods” and level 2 headings for “General Methodology” and “Test Procedures.” The review article has a level 1 heading for “Spider Myrmecomorphy” and level 2 headings for “Morphological and Behavioral Adaptations” and “General Adaptive Significance of Myrmecomorphy” along with a few others.

Cellular Respiration

Submitted by sditelberg on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 11:02

One of the most important biological processes for all life on Earth is cellular respiration. This process takes place in an organelle known as the mitochondria, colloquially referred to as the "powerhouse of the cell." Three stages encompass cellular respiration: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. The final stage is aerobic and generates the most ATP for the energy put in. Glycolysis is an anaerobic process that uses two ATP molecules and produces 4, resulting in a net gain of two ATP molecules. By breaking down glucose, the cell is able to tap into a bit of the energy stores located in the molecule. Glycolysis takes place outside the mitochondria in the cell's cytoplasm.

A molecule known as Acetyl CoA helps take the pyruvate, the ending molecule of glycolysis, into the matrix of the mitochondria. Here, the Krebs cycle occurs and many electrons are stripped from molecules and their intermediates to eventually be utilized in generating ATP. These electrons are picked up by electron carriers, such as NAD+ and FADH, which transport these electrons to the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation. At the electron transport chain, electrons are pulled through a series of proteins by electronegative oxygen. Along the way, proton pumps establish a gradient in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. The electrons eventually join with oxygen and are released as water, and the protons in the intermembrane space flow down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. When ATP synthase spins, it generates ATP.

DNA Replication

Submitted by sditelberg on Wed, 09/12/2018 - 15:06

The replication of DNA in the cell is a vital process to life. Many enzymes and molecules are involved that not only copy a complete set of genetic information, but also double-check for errors along the way. The first step in this replication process is to unravel the DNA with the help of an enzyme known as helicase. This unwinding and separating of the two DNA strands produces what is known as a replication fork, where new DNA can be synthesized. Another enzyme, topoisomerase, allows the DNA to rotate during replication and helps relieve some of the physical strain on the double helix. Single stranded binding protein helps hold the two parent DNA strands apart during this time.

A primase adds an RNA primer to the strand of DNA available for replication so the next enzyme, DNA polymerase III, can carry out synthesis. DNA polymerase III works along both strands of parent DNA, adding base pairs off of the initial primers that were placed. While synthesizing, DNA polymerase III also checks for errors along the way, removing incorrectly paired bases and replacing them with correct ones. Once both strands have been replicated, DNA polymerase I replaces the initial RNA primers with the correct DNA sequence. Finally, DNA ligase seals the gaps between the bases.

Metaphase to Anaphase Transition

Submitted by sditelberg on Tue, 09/11/2018 - 17:33

There are many interactions involved with the metaphase to anaphase transition in the process of mitosis. Unattached kinetochores on duplicated chromosomes send out signals in the cell that keep the molecule, MAD, bound to CDC20. MAD is bound to CDC20 until all kinetochores are attached, at which point MAD and CDC20 separate and APC and CDC20 bind instead. Another molecule, Securin, is ubiquinated by the APC/CDC20 complex. Once this occurs, Securin is destroyed and another molecule, Separase, is released. Cohesin between the replicated chromosomes is then destroyed by Separase and the chromatids separate as the cell progresses to anaphase.

This pathway can become faulty if one aspect is not functional at any given time. For example, if Securin is absent in the cell, Separase would continually destroy cohesin, leading the cell to transition to anaphase. If CDC20 releases MAD too early, a non-disjunction event may occur and the proper number of chromosomes will not be adequately distributed to each daughter cell. These defects in the pathway can lead certain cells to become cancerous.

Spider Observations Perfect Paragraph - Sarah Ditelberg

Submitted by sditelberg on Fri, 09/07/2018 - 15:19

When the spider is stationary on its legs, its body does not touch the ground. At the moment, one of its legs is pointed upwards, almost as if it is trying to sense its surroundings. It is hard to tell where the web in the cup starts and ends. As I flip the cup over, the spider remains in its place despite previously appearing to be on the surface of the cup, suggesting that the spider was in its web the entire time. It is possible that the spider’s web extends throughout the entire cup since it appears to exist on opposite surfaces. This could give us clues as to how long the spider has been in the cup, especially if we are aware of the rate of its web-making. Perhaps the spider has been creating more of its web as I have been writing. Although I accidentally bumped the cup and sent the spider into a frenzy, it has calmed down. Overall, the spider is very calm in its environment.


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