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draft lab

Submitted by jkswanson on Thu, 11/15/2018 - 15:30

TA – Manisha

Tuesday, 8 AM

Submitted: Oct, 30 2018

Isolation of Trimyristin from Nutmeg

 

Purpose:

The purpose of this experiment is to obtain a pure organic compound, trimyristin, from the natural source nutmeg. The techniques of extraction, distillation, recrystallization, and chromatography are used to isolate and purify the chemical compounds from the natural sources.

Reaction:

Trimyristin                                Myristic Acid:

MP: 56-57  ℃                                MP: 54.4 ℃

MW: 723.16 g/mol                             MW: 228.37 g/mol

 

Experimental Procedure:

1.0 g of nutmeg was weighed out on a scale and transferred into a round-bottomed flask using a funnel. 3 mL of tert-butyl methyl ether and 3 boiling chips were also added to the RB flask. A distillations column and air condenser were set up with the black plastic connector to yield the highest results. The flask was lowered into the sand and monitored at a very gentle boil. The mixture was heated for 10 minutes, and then allowed to settle for a few minutes. The color of the mixture changed slightly to a lighter brown. Using a pipet, as much as of the liquid as possible was transferred to a test tube to settle further. The solids were left behind in the RB flask. The liquid was allowed to settle for a few minutes for even further separation of liquid ad small remaining solids. An empty 25 mL flask was pre-weighed. The liquid was transferred via pipet from the test tube to the clean 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask.

Filtration was performed by packing a glass pipet with a plug of cotton; the solution in the 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask was transferred via pipet and filtered through the cotton filter. The solution was allowed to drain completely before a new addition was performed. A pipet bulb was used to help speed up filtration. All of the solution from the Erlenmeyer flask was transferred.

2 mL of fresh tert-butyl methyl ethyl was added to the solid in the RB flaks and warmed very briefly to allow the solids to settle and the liquid was then transferred via pipet into the test tube and allowed to settle further. The liquid was then transferred from the test tube through the cotton pipet filter using a piper and into the same 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask as before.

 

draft

Submitted by jkswanson on Thu, 11/15/2018 - 15:17

The excel sheet should include the distance(in cm) of the spider from the LED light (in the x,y,and z dimension), and the diameter of the web, if present at all. This will be recorded with a ruler from outside the container.  Pictures of the spider best depicting its distance from the LED can be taken for reference. Determine whether the light, time exposure, length, color, brightness, or species of spider had any effect on presence of webs in the chamber. This is done by comparing each project results to one another and deciding whether the web that was produced was influenced by the light that was exposed to the spider. If the spider was attracted to the light, then the distance of the web from the light should be smaller than if the spider was not attracted to the web.

SIGNIFICANCE  

    The findings of this study will be very beneficial for multiple reasons. The data we collect will give us insight into the behavior and lives of the small cellar spiders that live in basements and homes right alongside humans. Today and going forward, LED lights are the new light bulb, they are more efficient, cheaper and easier to install and use.

 

pp

Submitted by jkswanson on Fri, 11/09/2018 - 13:54

Putting up a finished project onto a poster board to present has been a part of science forever. Some things constitute a good poster while others bad, and some combination land most posters in between. A scientific poster can be viewed as good to different people for different reasons, like the opinion of the article or the subject matter being discussed. These are important but also some things across the board that make a good poster.  Such as, the title must sum up the experiment is an understandable way. The bear minimum requirement for the title should be that, but a good title will also intrigue the reader and almost trap them into wanting to read the rest. The title “ Using zebrafish larval models to study brain injury, locomotor and neuroinflammatory outcomes following intracerebral haemorrhage [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations]” is a basic title, just getting the point across, barely simplifying it. Compared to this title, “Are we aiming to miss in translational autoimmunity treatments?[version 1; referees: awaiting peer review]”, which involves the reader and tries to grab their interest with a question.  Another important aspect of a poster is the display of the data, if it is hard to see or make sense out of, the reader is more inclined to lose interest. Having the entire project be displayed in such a manner that someone who has no clue on the subject can generally figure it out is the aim. This means using words that are not unique to the field of study or if used explaining them in everyday terms. Another good key for quality posters is length, if the poster is too long it can scare readers away and if too short make them not see the point in the project. Many good things contribute to the quality of posters, these are just a few.

draft project figure keys

Submitted by jkswanson on Fri, 11/09/2018 - 09:37

Figure 1: This is the basic setup for the LED during this study. Multiple resistors and multiple different colors will be used.

Figure 2: This is what the set up will actually look like with the spider habitat, except a 9 volt battery will be used instead.

Figure 3: This is how far into the habitat the LED goes,just so the lip of the LED is on the outside of the container.

Figure 4: The spider habitat is kept in or under a box to isolate it from any outside light sources other than the LED.

 

draft virtual poster tour

Submitted by jkswanson on Fri, 11/09/2018 - 09:35

Putting up a finished project onto a poster board to present has been a part of science forever now and some things constitute a good poster while others bad, and some combination can land most posters in between.  A scientific poster can be viewed as good to different people for different reasons, like the opinion of the article or if that's a field the reader is genuinely into. These are important but also some things across the board that make a good poster board are things such as, the title must sum up the experiment is an understandable way.  The bear minimum requirement for the title should be that, but a good title will also intrigue the reader and almost trap them into wanting to read the rest. The title “ Using zebrafish larval models to study brain injury, locomotor and neuroinflammatory outcomes following intracerebral haemorrhage [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations]” is a basic title, just getting the point across, barely simplifying it.  Compared to this title,

Are we aiming to miss in translational autoimmunity treatments?[version 1; referees: awaiting peer review]” which involves the reader and tries to grab their interest with a question.   Another important aspect of a poster is the display of the data, if it is hard to see or make sense out of, the reader is more inclined to lose interest.  Having the entire project be displayed in such a manner that someone who has no clue on the subject can generally figure it out is the aim. This means using words that are not unique to the field of study or if used explaining them in everyday terms.  Another good key for quality posters is length, if the poster is too long it can scare readers away and if too short make them not see the point in the project. Many good things contribute to the quality of posters, these are just a few.

 

draft signifigance

Submitted by jkswanson on Fri, 11/09/2018 - 00:56

SIGNIFICANCE  

    The findings of this study will be very beneficial for multiple reasons. The data we collect will give us insight into the behavior and lives of the small cellar spiders that live in basements and homes right alongside humans. Today and going forward, LED lights are the new light bulb, they are more efficient, cheaper and easier to install and use. This means that the LED light will began to have a much larger presence in the outdoors as street lamps, lights in the park, etc.. With LEDs becoming more and more prominent and mixed into our surroundings, this study will show some of the effects LED lights can have on spiders creating their webs, eating, sleeping, and just their overall behavior. Comparing the results of this study to studies about regular light bulbs effects on spiders can be very useful  in helping decide where to put LEDs up, how intense to have them, and the schedule for the LEDs. Many people also face fears of spiders, both rational and irrational. Cellar spiders are one of the most common species of spiders to reside in homes and buildings. The results of this study could be helpful for people to repel spiders from living and coming into their homes and other place. Depending on the results of this study, potentially, differences in color, brightness, and/or the duration of LEDs could be used by anyone who wants keep spiders away.

 

draft significance

Submitted by jkswanson on Thu, 11/08/2018 - 16:04

SIGNIFICANCE  

    The findings of this study will be very beneficial for multiple reasons.  The data we collect will give us insight into the behavior and lives of the small cellar spiders that live in basements and homes right alongside humans.  Not much is known about the effects of LEDS on spiders and specifically on creating a web in the presence of LEDs. Today and going forward, LED lights are the new light bulb, they are more efficient, cheaper, easier to install and use, etc.. This means that the LED light will began to have a much larger presence in the outdoors as street lamps, lights in the park, etc..  With LEDs becoming more and more prominent and mixed into our surroundings, this study will show some of the effects LED lights can have on spiders creating their webs, eating, sleeping, and just their overall behavior. This study, in part with others, can then be used to decide where to put LEDs up, how intense to have them, and the schedule for the LEDs. This study could also bring insight into the most effective ways to repel spiders from living and coming into houses and other places.

 

draft benzoin lab

Submitted by jkswanson on Thu, 11/08/2018 - 14:43

Results:

Figure 1:

TLC plates no pictures, actual plates

Table 1:





Reaction Product

Mass

Recovery %

Melting Point ℃

Starting Material

0.612 g

---

---

Crude

0.578 g

94.6 %

131-133

Recrystallized Product

0.239 g

39.05 %

135-137

Table 2 TLC analysis for the plates:

TLC Plate 1:







Spot

Compound

Solvent Front

Spot distance

Rf

Conclusion

A

Benzoin

4.4 cm

3.4 cm

.77

Compound was benzoin

B

Recrystallize product

4.4 cm

2.4 cm

.54

Compound was 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol

C

Co spot

4.4 cm

Spot 1: 3.3 cm

Spot 2: 2.5 cm

Spot 1: .75

Spot 2: .56

Contained Benzoin and 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol

TLC Plate 2:







Spot

Compound

Solvent Front

Spot distance

Rf

Conclusion

A

Benzoin

4.4 cm

3.5 cm

.79

Compound was benzoin

B

Crude

4.4 cm

2.5 cm

.57

Compound was 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol

C

Co spot

4.4 cm

Spot 1: 3.4 cm

Spot 2: 2.6 cm

Spot 1: .77

Spot 2: .59

Contained Benzoin and crude product

Discussion:

In this experiment, benzoin was reduced with sodium borohydride and recrystallized to 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol(0.239 g) with a recovery of 39.05 %.  The product, (1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol), was determined through TLC analysis and melting point. The TLC analysis showed the presence of two different compounds (seen in Figure 1).  The starting material (spot A) traveled the same distance on both the TLC plates with Rf values of .77-.79 which are very close. This is different than the recrystallized product and the crude product (spot B) in plates 1 and 2, respectively.  The recrystallized product and the crude product travel a shorter distance and therefore have a lower Rf value that are very similar to each other, .54 and .57 respectively. The co spots (spots C) show that there are two compounds presence since both contain two spots with two different Rf values.  

This means that a starting material other than the starting material has formed in both the crude and the recrystallized product.  Additionally spot B on both plates contain only one spot and neither matches the starting material spot so therefore Benzoin (starting material) must not be present in the crude and recrystallized product.  

The TLC plate is a silica gel plate that is polar, which means polar compounds interact more with the plate and don’t travel as far as relatively less polar compounds.  Benzoin was expected to travel further than 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol because it is less polar. This was supported by the TLC plate and observations made. The melting point also supported that the recrystallized product (1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol) was relatively pure as it’s MP range was 135-137 ℃, which is two degrees, signifying purity.  The melting points for this lab is very important because it tells us how pure the substance is and in some cases is able to determine the isotope of a certain compound.

To improve purity a different substance other than HCl could be used to cause a slower reaction, which in turn would increase the purity of the product.  Yield could be increased by raising the temperature slightly when mixing in this lab as it takes a long time for the solids to dissolve which could mean some is being left out or not completely dissolved.  The warming would allow for all the starting material and materials involved to be used to their fullest.

Post Lab question:

This would mean that there would be 3 different compounds in the mixture.  

The spot with the same Rf as the starting material is the starting material, and the other two spots with different Rf values are most likely the expected product, the secondary alcohol.  The difference between the last two non starting material spots could be because they are different isomers of the same compound.

 

draft bio chem

Submitted by jkswanson on Mon, 11/05/2018 - 20:54

Sodium Borohydride Reduction of Benzoin

Purpose:

The main goal of this experiment if to use sodium borohydride to reduce benzoin to 1,2-diphenylethane- 1,2- diol.

 

Reaction Scheme:

Experimental Procedure:

Benzoin(0.5g, 2.36 mmol) and ethanol (4 mL)were added to a 25 mL erlenmeyer flask. The mixture was swirled at room temperature until the benzoin was completely dissolved.  Then sodium borohydride(0.1 g, 2.64 mmol) was added in several portions over 5 minutes. It was swirled at room temperature for 20 minutes. The mixture was cooled in an ice bath for 15 mins. Then water(5 mL) and HCl(0.3 mL, 6M) were added to the mixture. After 15 minutes,  water(5 mL) was added to the mixture. The mixture was then vacuum filtered to collect the product, using small amounts of ice cold water to wash the flask. The filter was left running with the product to dry for 15 minutes. The crude product was weighed, and the melting point was determined.  Around 1 mg was put aside for TLC later. The rest of the product was recrystallized using minimal acetone, it was washed with hexane during the vacuum filtration process. The crystals were dried overnight. The mass and the melting point of the 1,2 -diphenylethane-1,2-diol were determined during morning hours.  

For the TLC analysis, benzoin(1 mg), crude product(1 mg) and recrystallized product(1 mg) were all dissolved in separate vials with a 9:1 solvent of ethyl acetate.  The TLC plates were then marked and spotted accordingly:

 

 

The solvent travelled until around 1 cm from the top of the plate.  The TLC plates were dried and spots were observed and marked under the UV light.  The TLC papers were then set in the iodine chamber to stain the spots. The Rf values were then calculated and recorded.

 

pp draft evo hw

Submitted by jkswanson on Fri, 10/26/2018 - 15:10

The fossil needed to support the phylogeny is a common ancestor of both the hippo and the whale and would consist of characteristics from both species.  Specifically it would have the pulley shaped astragalus. The common ancestor of the whale and hippo diverged and created 2 seperate species, hippo and whale. This was done when the whale mutated and lost the oulley shaped astragulus, while the hippo still has that characteristic to this day.  The common ancestor is an animal that consists of both whale and hippo characreristics, which characteristics other than the pulley shaped astragulus, we may never know. The requirement for the pulley shape because using the idea of maximum parsimony leads us to want the least amount of evolutionary changes. It would make much more sense and be much easier for the whale to lose the pulley shaped astragulus and the common ancestor of the whale and the hippo to have it, than for the common ancestor to lose the characteristic and for the hippo to independetly gain it back. It makes much more sense to say the common ancestor contained the pulley shaped astragalus, and had some whale characteristics.

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