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Cell molec comments draft

Submitted by curbano on Fri, 11/16/2018 - 12:58

SH3 and SH2 domains play a large role in many signal pathways. It is a binding site for proteins with phosphorylated tyrosine. By the name auto inhibition, I would assume the protein itself is able to inactivate itself. I am curious to know how this system works exactly, though. I wonder if the protein receives a signal? These are common pathways that was addressed in class. There are 3 proteins that are needed for the activation of this pathway. If there is a mutation that influences the function of one of these proteins, the enter pathway is affected. Is there a way for the pathway to compensate for a mutation in one of these proteins? If so, how does that work? Grb2 is a growth factor receptor-bound protein. It is a big player is many signal transduction pathways and cell communication.

protein PP

Submitted by curbano on Thu, 11/15/2018 - 22:07

In every living organism, structure plays a large role in the function of certain things. Proteins make up nearly all living organisms, so understanding the structure of proteins can help us understand the overall structure and function of us and other living things. Proteins have four levels of structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids, which are linked together with peptide bonds. Secondary structure are structures the sequence of amino acids often form into. Proteins usually have alpha helices and/or beta sheets. Alpha helices are helices, similar to the structure of DNA. Beta sheets are flat structures that can run parallel or antiparallel. Usually, the two middle sheets are parallel and the two sheets on the outside are antiparallel to those. The bonding that is involved in secondary structure is hydrogen bonding Tertiary structure is the overall fold of a single polypeptide chain. Quaternary structure is the folding of two or more polypeptide chains, subunits, that function together. The bonds that are involved in tertiary/quaternary structure are the noncovalent bonds.

Background draft 2

Submitted by curbano on Thu, 11/15/2018 - 10:50

In nearly every living species, temperature influences physiological and biological processes in the body. Spiders are ectothermic organisms, meaning they are unable to regulate their body temperatures relative to their environment. Because of this, changes in temperature can have a large impact on their metabolic rate and overall activity (Barghusen et al). It has been found that even winter active spiders will make less effective webs or no webs at all at temperatures 2° colder than the temperature they are accustomed to. Having a less effective, or no, web greatly reduced feeding, which could be detrimental for spiders (Aitchison 1984). Since web production is a large part of spider activity and survival, we decided to focus our project on how varying temperatures influence web production. Past research has found that spiders in lower temperatures tend to use less spiral silk than spiders in warmer temperatures (Vollrath et al). Our project focuses on how temperature influence the weight of webs.  

Cell cycle

Submitted by curbano on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 23:28

There are many different checkpoints and regulations to help the cell cycle be carried out correctly and successfully. One very important regulation/mechanism used in the cell cycle is cohesion as well as the breaking down of cohesion. If cohesion does not break down properly or at the right time, it can lead to too many or too few chromosomes in a cell, which can be detrimental. I am interested in knowing what is involved with the formation of the contractile ring in animal cells and the phragmoplast in plant cells. How do these two mechanisms differ? I would assume the phragmoplast would have a method in protecting the cell wall during cytokinesis. If the contractile ring/phragmoplast doesn't function properly, then the single cell can't be divided and there would not be two identical daughter cells as the end product. We have lots of different technology and methods in viewing cells and cell processes. These images remind me of some IF imaging that occurs in the genetics lab I work in. The blue staining is most likely DAPI, which is a DNA marker. Markers can be very helpful in identifying certain structures in the cell, different stages in the cell cycle, and many other pieces of information. It is nice to be able to physically see what is happening in these cells because it gives us a better understanding.

 

Cell molec draft 2

Submitted by curbano on Tue, 11/13/2018 - 11:26

While I have learned about the cell cycle many times in high school as well as college, I never realized how complex this cycle truly is. I was aware of checkpoints and the steps, but there are so many different "switches," mechanisms, and regulations to make sure cells going through replication come out normal. It amazes me that even though the cycle is so complex, for the most part, our cells and we come out fairly normal and function properly. I guess the many regulations prevent errors from occurring, but it still is amazing! I wasn’t sure what nucleating microtubules was or its purpose, so I looked it up. Microtubules nucleation is the process in which tubulin alpha-beta heterodimers begin aggregation to form an oligomeric tubulin structure, also known as a microtubule seed. The microtubule seed then eventually forms into a microtubule. This means that microtubule nucleation is the initiating step in the formation of a microtubule when there are no microtubules present.

PP

Submitted by curbano on Tue, 11/13/2018 - 11:25

In nearly every living species, temperature influences physiological and biological processes in the body. Spiders are ectothermic organisms, meaning they are unable to regulate their body temperatures relative to their environment. Because of this, changes in temperature can have a large impact on their metabolic rate and overall activity (Barghusen et al). It has been found that even winter active spiders will make less effective webs or no webs at all at temperatures 2° colder than the temperature they are accustomed to. Having a less effective, or no, web greatly reduced feeding, which could be detrimental for spiders (Aitchison 1984). Since web production is a large part of spider activity and survival, we decided to focus our project on how varying temperatures influence web production. Past research has found that spiders in lower temperatures tend to use less spiral silk than spiders in warmer temperatures (Vollrath et al). Our project focuses on how temperature influence the weight of webs.

 

Cell molec draft

Submitted by curbano on Thu, 11/08/2018 - 09:33

Since scientists still don’t know much about the specific proteins involved with this process, it is hard to give a straight answer. I would assume that the binding site would be the same or at least fairly similar on the different proteins since they all bind to M-Cdk. I never really thought about the fact that protein degradation/proteolysis would be necessary for sister-chromatid separation. However, it makes a lot of sense. If the proteins keeping the chromatids together were still present, it would be much more challenging or even impossible to separate the chromatids. The kinetochore plays a huge role in mitosis, especially sister chromatid separation. While kinetochore sends a signal if the spindle is not properly attached, mutations must occur occasionally. This would most likely lead to an extra chromosome or lack of chromosome in a cell. I wonder if there are any other consequences of a lack of negative signal.

 

Impact revision draft

Submitted by curbano on Wed, 11/07/2018 - 13:06

Our experiment will study cellar spider web weight and production in relation to the temperature of their surrounding environment. This experiment can be used as a microcosm for Earth and may show the effects of climate change on cellar spiders.  Globally, species are expected to shift locations in response to climate change. When the area the organisms are in becomes too hot or cold, they move towards the poles or equator accordingly to adjust for the change in temperature. If the area becomes too hot, they will generally move towards the poles in order to stay in an environment that suits their temperature needs. If the area becomes too hot, they will move to a cooler area, such as away from the equator or a higher elevation. Most of the Earth is expected to warm over the next several decades, but there are some areas that are expected to get colder. Physiological processes in the body are often influenced by temperature and the changing temperature can make survival much more challenging.

Bio 285 draft

Submitted by curbano on Tue, 11/06/2018 - 13:46

It makes sense that G1 cells would be able to replicate while G2 cell would not be able to. Even when a signal for replication is present, G2 will not replicate. I would think that the G2 cells must have a signal or something that indicates that it has passed certain checkpoints, such as the DNA replication checkpoint at the end of S phase. The ORC is a multi-subunit SNA binding complex that binds to the orgins of replication in all eukaryotes. It is made up of 6 subunits and ATP is needed for binding to occur. The subunits are encoded by ORC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The ORC is active at the end of mitosis and early G1, which makes sense for replication. While it is highly unlikely since so many different complexes and proteins are involved, what happens if re-replication occurs after S phase? Is this even possible at all? It makes sense that Cdk activity reduces to zero so chromosomes are ready for a new round of replication. It reminds me of a "reset" button.

 

impact draft

Submitted by curbano on Sun, 11/04/2018 - 19:08

Our experiment studies cellar spider web weight and production in relation to the temperature of their surrounding environment.  This experiment can be used as a microcosm for Earth and may show the effects that climate change will have on cellar spiders. Globally, species are expected to shift locations in response to climate change.  When the area the organisms are in becomes too hot or cold, they move towards the poles or equator accordingly to adjust for the change in temperature. If the area becomes too hot, they will generally move towards the poles in order to stay in an environment that suits their temperature needs.  If the area becomes too cold, they will move to a warmer area, which is generally towards the equator. Most of the Earth is expected to warm over the next several decades, but there are some areas that are expected to get colder.

 
 

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