## Data Practice

Please download this directory, unzip it, and work with a partner to analyze the data: https://bcrc.bio.umass.edu/data_practice/data_practice_files.tar.gz

BIOL312Section1; Fall 2018; Brewer

Please download this directory, unzip it, and work with a partner to analyze the data: https://bcrc.bio.umass.edu/data_practice/data_practice_files.tar.gz

We will use this site to post blog entries, perfect paragraphs, images, and references. You will need to activate your Biology Department account to use the site.

I believe that both reserves, 1 and 2, were designed equally efficient in promoting heterozygosity and conservation of population alleles. Although the two reserves differ slightly, they had similar outcomes. Reserve 1 had a lower heterozygosity than Reserve 2, yet preserved more alleles. This was due to the presence of subpopulations. The subpopulations restrict the interactions between the ferrets, decreasing the heterozygosity. The conservation of alleles was due to the subpopulation dynamic. The subpopulations decrease the negative effect of the loss of an allele on the entire population due to the sectional divisions. Reserve 2 had higher heterozygosity than Reserve 1, yet lost more alleles. This was due to the single unit design of the reserve. The single unit allowed for more ferrets to interact and breed, increasing heterozygosity. Yet, the single unit was affected more when an allele was loss, due to the lack of division in the reserve.

The “Yeast Mutation and Analysis” lab protocol served as a guideline for the first day of our Yeast Mutagenesis experiment. On day one we performed a serial dilution of ~107to ~104yeast cells using a pipette, sterile test tubes, and vortexer. From the105dilution, we pipetted 100µL onto a YED plate and repeated with a second YED plate. We then exposed both plates to UV radiation for 5 seconds. We made a control plate that we did not expose to UV radiation and incubated all three plates for 3-5 days. After that time, the lab professor removed them from the incubator.

The “Yeast Mutation and Analysis” lab protocol served as a guideline for the first day of our Yeast Mutagenesis experiment. During the first day, we performed a serial dilution of ~107to ~104yeast cells using a pipette, sterile test tubes, and vortexer. From the105dilution, we pipetted 100µL onto a YED plate and repeated with a second YED plate. We then exposed both plates to UV radiation for 5 seconds. We made a control plate that we did not expose to UV radiation and incubated all three plates for 3-5 days. After that time, the lab professor removed them from the incubator. During the next lab period on September 26th, we observed the plates. Since we had no mutants, mutated yeast cells were provided to us. We designed an experiment to test what gene the mutants were mutated in. We decided to cross the 4 unknown types of mutants we were given with 4 known types of mutants to see which mutants complemented and which mutants had mutations in the same genes. During the same lab period, we streaked the 4 unknown mutants and the 4 known mutant parent groups onto a YED plate and left them to incubate for two days. The streaks contained 1a, 2a, aMw, and aMx on the horizontal axis and 1ɑ, 2ɑ, ɑMy, and ɑMz on the vertical axis. On September 28th, two days after streaking and incubation, we mated the UV mutants. A small sample of each of the corresponding parent colonies was put where the two parent groups would intersect and mixed with each other. We allowed 2 days of incubation after mating before replica plating onto an MV plate. On October 2nd, the YED plate was replica plated onto an MV plate and an MV+Ade plate. We left the replica MV plates in the incubator until the following lab period.

I am currently taking statistics 240. We have covered topics such as descriptive statistics, simple linear regression and we have just started probability. We have also discussed the difference between qualitative and quantitative statistics, and whether or not they are discrete or continuous. Statistics may be represented in many ways, such as graphs and tables. There may be bar graphs, line graphs, and pie charts. Histograms and boxplots also provide details on the distribution of the data. Range, median, mode, mean and standard deviation are useful measures of the data and provide a variety of details about it, such as its general distribution. Chi-Square tests may be used, along with p-value, in order to determine whether there is a relationship between two sets of data. Simple linear regression may be used to determine whether or not two sets of date are correlated. By looking at the regression line and "r" it may be determined if there is a positive, negative, strong or weak correlation. Of course it is important to remember that correlation does not equal causation and there be a number of lurking variables which may effect the data, and make the correlation exist.

For our experiment, we will be studying the effects of starvation on Pholcidae spiders and demonstrate how their feeding time can be measured. Pholcidae spiders are cold-blooded and use a low amount of energy when not hunting for prey they remain still in their location to conserve energy and rely on low supply food to maintain metabolic rate. Though low food supply is needed for energy Pholcidae spiders will readily eat any available food when provided though the size of prey will be measured as Pholcidae will only hunt prey it can easily dominate.

Fruit flies under anesthetic will be used because it ensures that they cannot fly away from the spider and allows capture from cellar spider for feeding. Flies and cellar spiders will be kept in Tupperware containers that allow observations to be observed more clearly through clear containers. Each container will have one cellar spider and variance in the number of fruit flies but the size of the fruit fly will remain small as cellar spiders only predicate flies they can dominate. The importance of this procedure was to ensure the time of feeding could be measured accurately. To measure the amount of time is spent on hunting fruit flies cellar spiders will be timed until fruit flies were attacked completely and could be declared dead.

I took ResEcon statistics in the Fall semester of my Sophomore year. Unfortunately, I do not remember a lot about statistics. I remember some units that the class went through, but I do not recall specific details. I remember talking about the difference between independent and dependent variables. The independent variable in an experiment does not depend on another variable, whereas the dependent variable varies according to the independent variable. We also learned about different methods of sampling. These include stratified random, simple random, cluster, and systemic sampling. Sampling techniques vary depending on the type of experiment that is performed; some sampling techniques are efficient for certain experiments depending on the size or range of the variables being tested. We also focused on graphs and statistical analysis. The ability to interpret statistical graphs is very important in biology as most of the results are displayed in graphs, scatter plots, and tables. This includes understanding how to find and interpret residuals, correlation, and linear regression. I do not remember specific detail about these concepts. We learned about how to use p value and degrees of freedom. I remember that a P value lower than .05 means that the difference between two averages is significant. The class also spent a good amount of the semester on probability. Overall, my memory of the material we learned in statistics class is hazy so reviewing the basics will be beneficial to this class.

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