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Submitted by kruzzoli on Fri, 11/16/2018 - 13:12

Individually we each watched two videos of domestic Morgan horses, Equus caballus, at the UMass Hadley Farm. Both videos had two mares and two foals of about 6 months old. We watched and observed the behaviors of the four horses for 48 minutes and 55 seconds, created a list of behaviors, and recorded the time each behavior occurred. We compared our lists and compiled all the behaviors into six tables categorized by each type of behavior: grooming, locomotion, playing, feeding, comfort, and body positioning. We determined the categories by grouping like behaviors together and establishing certain characteristics of each category. Grooming was categorized by the horse gnawing at himself or licking. Locomotion was categorized by moving locations. Playing included interaction with other horses by nudging, jumping, or gnawing. Feeding was categorized by behaviors that included the horse’s head touching the grass and the ground. Comfort included behaviors that involve just the horse, such as tail waving, that increased the comfort of the horse or interactions between the foal and the mare. We categorized body positioning as movements to the horse’s posture while they remained stationary.

methods warbler phylogeny

Submitted by kruzzoli on Fri, 11/16/2018 - 10:20

    As a group, we observed photos of warblers from the Setophega worksheet. To begin, a series of 12 common plumage characteristics for the warblers were identified. We choose to observe the presence of wing bars, if the bird had a short or long beak, the color of the throat, eye ring color, belly color, feet color, the presence of yellow feathers, the presence of bright colored feathers, rump coloration, the presence of a curved beak, if the bird had more than two feather colors, and if the crown was a different color than the body. We observed the photographs and the skin museum to observe each species and categorize the plumage characteristics. We wrote the color of each plumage feature in the table and we used “1” and “0” for traits that didn’t specify a color. The presence of wing bars, yellow feathers, bright colored feathers, more than two feather colors, and a matching crown were indicated by a 1 for yes and a 0 indicated no. A short beak was categorized by a 0 and a long beak was categorized by a 1. After evaluating each of the 33 species of Warblers for the set of characteristics determined, four of the patterns were chosen to apply to a phylogenetic tree. We choose the presence of wingbars, the presence of yellow feathers, foot coloration, and the presence of a matching crown color. We indicated the absence of wing bars with a black line on the taxa of the phylogenetic tree. On a new tree we indicated the absence of yellow feathers with a black line on the taxa of the phylogenetic tree. On another new tree, we marked the taxa of species that had a different color crown that the rest of the back with a black line. On a fourth tree, we indicated the color of the feet by using a different color line on each taxa that matches the color of the birds feet. Using the phylogenetic analysis, the characteristics were analyzed to determine any clear patterns of evolution and gene succession.

 

methods

Submitted by kruzzoli on Fri, 11/16/2018 - 10:16

We wrote the color of each plumage feature in the table and we used “1” and “0” for traits that didn’t specify a color. The presence of wing bars, yellow feathers, bright colored feathers, more than two feather colors, and a matching crown were indicated by a 1 for yes and a 0 indicated no. A short beak was categorized by a 0 and a long beak was categorized by a 1. After evaluating each of the 33 species of Warblers for the set of characteristics determined, four of the patterns were chosen to apply to a phylogenetic tree. We choose the presence of wingbars, the presence of yellow feathers, foot coloration, and the presence of a matching crown color. We indicated the absence of wing bars with a black line on the taxa of the phylogenetic tree. On a new tree we indicated the absence of yellow feathers with a black line on the taxa of the phylogenetic tree. On another new tree, we marked the taxa of species that had a different color crown that the rest of the back with a black line. On a fourth tree, we indicated the color of the feet by using a different color line on each taxa that matches the color of the birds feet. Using the phylogenetic analysis, the characteristics were analyzed to determine any clear patterns of evolution and gene succession.

 

warbler methods

Submitted by kruzzoli on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 15:25

As a group, we observed photos of warblers from the Setophega worksheet. To begin, a series of 12 common plumage characteristics for the warblers were identified. We choose to observe the presence of wing bars, if the bird had a short or long beak, the color of the throat, eye ring color, belly color, feet color, the presence of yellow feathers, the presence of bright colored feathers, rump coloration, the presence of a curved beak, if the bird had more than two feather colors, and if the crown was a different color than the body. We observed the photographs and the skin museum to observe each species and categorize the plumage characteristics.  Coloration differences were shown by changing the color of the cell within the table of data, the color of the cell matched the color of the plumage. The presence of wing bars, yellow feathers, bright colored feathers, more than two feather colors, and a matching crown were indicated by a 1 for yes. A 0 indicated a no. A short beak was categorized by a 0 and a long beak was categorized by a 1. After evaluating each of the 33 species of Warblers for the set of characteristics determined, four of the patterns were chosen to apply to a phylogenetic tree.

methods

Submitted by kruzzoli on Wed, 11/14/2018 - 14:31

We completed a time analysis budget using Jwatcher to indicate when certain behaviors occurred in different contexts. We watched the same 48 minutes and 55 seconds of videos that was used to create the sequential analysis and the behavior tables. We observed the behaviors of only the foals. We observed behaviors and grouped them into five categories that we defined as comfort, locomotion, grooming, feeding, and playing. Comfort included behaviors that comforted the horse, such as tail waving. Locomotion were behaviors that involved the foal moving to a new location. Grooming included bevaiors such as licking or any cleaning of the foal. Feeding was defined by behaviors where the horse fed and playing involved interactions with other foals. These behaviors were defined by the context of who was involved, either alone, including the mare, or including another foal. We used jwatcher to record when each behavior occurred and the context of each behavior. We used the data to analyze the proportion of time the foals spent doing each behavior in each context and the amount of behaviors done in each category in each context. We used a bar graph to display our results.

 

methods

Submitted by kruzzoli on Tue, 11/13/2018 - 16:21

We rewatched the videos and choose a 5 minute period and 10 behaviors that occurred in that time frame for a reliability analysis. One group member watched the 5 minutes worth of video and used Jwatcher to indicate the times at which each behavior took place. This member rewatched the same five minutes of video and used Jwatcher to indicate the times at which each behavior occurred a second time. The reliability was determined between the two data sets and we redid the indication of when each behavior occurred until the reliability was above 65%. A second group member watched the same 5 minutes of video and indicated when behaviors occurred using Jwatcher. This was redone until there was above a 65% reliability between the first and second group member.

biomes

Submitted by kruzzoli on Thu, 11/08/2018 - 15:55

Biome 2 doesn’t have a direct match to an earth biome however it does follow a similar seasonal pattern to a tropical rainforest. Rainforests have little seasonal variation and therefore have pretty consistent precipitation and temperature patterns throughout the year. Because the data on biome 2 shows little seasonal variation it can be expected that this biome is located near the equator. The closer to the equator you get, the less of an effect the axis has on climate, so there is little variation. I would predict this biome to be equatorial because of the lack of seasonal variation. I would not consider it to be a tropical rainforest however because it has much less average precipitation and a much lower average temperature. The lack of precipitation would not allow for the abundance of species found in a rainforest. You might expect to see similar plants, as in ones that are not acclimated to seasonal change. They would not lose their leaves in the winter. You would expect to see a lot of vegetation year round because their is still substantial rainfall and there is never a period of freezing temperatures that would prevent the growth of many plants.

 

biomes

Submitted by kruzzoli on Thu, 11/08/2018 - 15:16

Biome 1 is most similar to a temperate deciduous forest based on both temperature and precipitation. Temperate deciduous forests vary seasonally in terms of both temperature and precipitation. The winters are typically cold and dry and the summers are warmer and typically see more rainfall. The peak of both precipitation and temperature occurs some point in time over the summer. The graph for biome 1 shows seasonal variation, with the winters having below freezing temperatures and the summers ranging in temperatures between 20-30 degrees celsius.  The biome on this new planet has slightly warmer summers than this earth biome but follows a similar pattern. This biome also has more rainfall on average than earth but again, has a similar seasonal pattern. You would expect this biome to be located around 30-50 degrees latitude. On earth, this type of biome is found mostly in the northern hemisphere because the southern hemisphere lacks the landmass needed, however, since we don’t know of any land differences between the northern and southern hemisphere of this planet, it can be expected in both hemispheres. You would also expect to find plants with deciduous leaves, so they loose their leaves in the sub freezing winters. Because there is such variety seasonally, the plants would likely be well adapted to seasonal change. On earth, you find maple, birch and many other types of trees so you might find similar trees in this new biome. There is more rainfall as well so it might be expected to contain larger trees.

 

draft

Submitted by kruzzoli on Tue, 11/06/2018 - 22:43

There are however some important  articles that show this potential genetic altering can be beneficial, such as the baby born with three parents. I know this is likely a point of argument, but I guess I “believe” in natural selection, and if someone was meant to have children, they would. Although this child was quite literally a miracle, the mother had previously lost four other children. I’m not sure how ethical my reasoning is here, and I’m not saying she doesn’t deserve to have this child, but I don’t believe we, as a race, should be altering our DNA in a way that allows us to reproduce, when clearly we shouldn’t. When you think about the population size, imagine if everyone that couldn’t physically reproduce healthy children, went through a similar process to have children. We would run out of room on this planet. This doesn’t sound quite moral, but we have processes such as natural selection for reason, meaning the most fit of our population should reproduce, and those who can’t, shouldn’t.     

    

 

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