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Gravity essay Intro -PP

Submitted by eehardy on Thu, 11/15/2018 - 23:58

 

You certainly do not have to be a physicist to know of gravity. Gravity is not some obscure concept mentioned only in the lingo of die-hard astronomy fans, like a “quasar" or a "red giant." Gravity is a concept known by toddlers and astrophysicists alike. From a young age, we learn that when we throw a ball up, it must come back down. We learn that if we slip on the monkey bars, gravity will bring us hurtling toward the ground. And sadly, we learn that we cannot fly. These lessons are all thanks to gravity.  But while anyone and everyone recognizes that gravity exists, it is likely that far fewer people have pondered where gravity comes from. Few have likely asked themselves, “what really IS gravity?" That is where physicists come into play, and the answer is not quite as simple as the concept itself. 

Gravity essay

Submitted by eehardy on Thu, 11/15/2018 - 23:16

One of the most prominent great thinkers of Ancient Greece, philosopher Aristotle, took a stab at theorizing the nature of gravity in the 4th century B.C. Aristotle believed that different elements gravitated toward different sources based on their own internal nature, rather than an external compelling force. The consensus at that time was that the earth was the center of the universe, supported by the complex diagrams constructed by the Roman Ptolemy which could be used to predict the motion of the visible planets. Thus, Aristotle believed that heavy elements were trying to seek their "correct" place at the center of the universe (the center of the earth).  For this reason rocks would fall to the ground, but lighter elements like steam would rise to their own natural and "correct" place in the sky. This led Aristotle to the conclusion that heavier elements fall faster.

What is gravity? Intro Draft

Submitted by eehardy on Thu, 11/15/2018 - 23:12

You certainly do not have to be a physicist to know of gravity. Gravity is not some obscure concept mentioned only in the lingo of die-hard astronomy fans, like a quasar or a red giant. Gravity is a concept known by toddlers and astrophysicists alike. From a young age, we learn that when we throw a ball up, it must come back down. We learn that if we slip on the money bars, gravity will bring us hurtling toward the ground. And sadly, we learn that we cannot fly. These lessons are all thanks to gravity. And it doesn’t stop there. We all feel gravity constantly, pulling us to the ground when we are sitting, standing, running, skipping, and jumping. John Mayer even wrote a song about it. We all know of gravity’s existence just like we all know the sky is blue. But while anyone and everyone can recognize that gravity exists, not many people have probably sat down and really asked themselves, from what source does gravity originate? What really IS gravity? And that is where physicists come into play, and the answer is not quite as simple as the concept itself. 

Deflection of light by sun- Perfect Paragraph

Submitted by eehardy on Fri, 11/09/2018 - 12:23

Another famous experiment that supports General Relativity is the deflection of light by the sun. Previous theories of gravity held that light would not be affected by gravity since it has no mass. However, Einstein thought otherwise. His Equivalence Principle predicts that light will curve in the presence of a gravitational field. The principle states that the effects of a gravitational field are the same as the effects of those in an accelerated frame of reference. Gravity would cause a person in a gravitational field to accelerate with g, the acceleration due to gravity. However, if the person’s frame of reference were to be accelerated at g when they were not in a gravitational field, all of the effects on them would be “equivalent” to how they would be in a gravitational field. Thus, in essence, a gravitational field can be created. Now, if a person was in the accelerating frame of reference and was to shine a beam of light out into an inertial reference frame of space, it would appear as though the light is curving downward since the particles of light emitted earlier would be lower than those emitted as the acceleration proceeds higher. And since this accelerated reference frame is equivalent to a gravitational field, the same thing would apparently happen in a gravitational field; light would curve. But according to classical physics, the force due to gravity is mass times acceleration… so how would light be affected since it has zero mass? And the curvature of spacetime explains this problem perfectly since light doesn’t need mass to follow the curve of spacetime. Thus, according to Einstein, light is deflected by gravity.

Deflection of light by sun- draft

Submitted by eehardy on Fri, 11/09/2018 - 12:10

Another famous experiment that supports General Relativity is deflection of light by the sun. Previous theories of gravity held that light would not be affected by gravity since it has no mass. However, Einstein showed this idea to be incorrect. Taking a look at Einstein’s Equivalence Principle which relates to gravity, we can imagine this idea. Einstein’s equivalence principle states that the effects of a gravitational field are the same as the effects of those in an accelerated frame of reference. Gravity would cause a person in a gravitational field to accelerate with g, the acceleration due to gravity. However if the person’s frame of reference were to be accelerated at g when they were not in a gravitational field, all of the effects on them would be “equivalent” to how they would be in a gravitational field. Thus, in essence, a gravitational field can be created. Now if a person were in the accelerating frame of reference and were to shine a beam of light out into an inertial reference frame of space, it would appear that the light is curving downward, since the particles of light emitted earlier will be lower than those emitted as the acceleration proceeds higher. And since this accelerated reference frame is equivalent to a gravitational field, the same thing would apparently happen in a gravitational field; light would curve. But according to classical physics, the force due to gravity is mass times acceleration… so how would light be affected since it has zero mass? And the curvature of spacetime explains this problem perfectly, since light doesn’t need mass to follow the curve of spacetime. Thus, according to Einstein, light is deflected by gravity.

Addition to "background" of proposal

Submitted by eehardy on Fri, 11/09/2018 - 12:08

(1).Another study described spider webs as depending upon the mechanical performance of capture threads, and states that web function arises from the architecture and mechanical performance of silk (3.) This study also used microscopy, and measured the web thickness of different web types: orb webs, funnel webs, dome webs, and irregular mesh webs. The different types of webs yielded different thicknesses on average, with orb webs being the thickest. Since spider webs must be strong enough to withstand the weight of the spider on the web, and be durable enough to support the spider’s movement, it is plausible that spider weight could also be a factor in web thickness, in addition to web type.   

newtonian vs einstein gravity perfect paragraph

Submitted by eehardy on Fri, 11/02/2018 - 00:19

Before Einstein developed his theory of Gravity, Newtonian Gravity was the widely accepted theory. Newtonian gravity works out mathematically for most instances. 

Newtonian gravity states that the strength of gravity depends on the distance between two objects. Einstein found fault with this particular idea, since according to his theory of relativity, the distance between any two objects changes based on an observer’s reference frame. Thus, Einstein set force to develop a gravitational theory cohesive with his theory of special relativity. After years of work on “General Relativity,” Einstein concluded that gravity is the result of a curvature in a four-dimensional fabric that makes up our universe, which he termed “spacetime." Space and time are not the distinct and absolute qualities we perceive them to be, according to Einstein. Rather, “Three-Dimensional Space” and “Time” actually exist as a single continuum of four-dimensional “spacetime.” Mass curves this fabric of spacetime, similar to the way a heavy ball would pull down the center of a trampoline. If you were to roll a little ball on the trampoline with the heavy ball in the center, the little ball would be drawn toward the bigger ball would rotate around it in a circle. Normally, the little ball would follow a straight line, but the larger ball in the middle distorts the surface of the trampoline, and thus the path of other objects on it. This is analogous to gravity for us, but the earth replaces the big ball and the objects on and surrounding the earth replace the smaller ball. The earth warps spacetime and this causes the inward pull of gravity that we experience on earth. 

Einstein vs newtonian gravity intro draft

Submitted by eehardy on Fri, 11/02/2018 - 00:14

Previously to Einstein’s theory of Gravity was Newtonian Gravity, which worked perfectly for most instances. According to Newtonian gravity, the strength of gravity depends on the distance between two objects. Einstein found fault with this particular idea since according to his theory of relativity, the distance between any two objects changes based on an observer’s reference frame. Thus, Einstein set force to develop a gravitational theory cohesive with his special relativity. Einstein concluded after years of work on “General Relativity” that gravity is the result of a curvature in a four-dimensional fabric that makes up our universe called spacetime. Space and time are not the distinct and absolute qualities we perceive them to be, according to Einstein. Rather, “Three-Dimensional Space” and “Time” actually exist as a single continuum of four-dimensional spacetime. Mass can actually curve this fabric of spacetime, similar to the way a heavy ball would pull down the center of a trampoline it was sitting on. If you were to roll a little ball on the trampoline with the heavy ball in the center, the little ball would be drawn toward the bigger ball would rotate around it in a circle. Normally, the little ball would follow a straight line, but the larger ball in the middle distorts the surface of the trampoline, and thus the path of other objects on it. This is analogous to gravity for us, but the earth replaces the big ball and the objects on and surrounding the earth replace the smaller ball. The earth warps spacetime and this causes the inward pull of gravity that we experience on earth. 

Part of abstract

Submitted by eehardy on Fri, 11/02/2018 - 00:09

The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between spider body size and spider web thickness. Spider webs are a material of interest to people because they are remarkably strong and able to withstand large forces, yet also soft. They vary widely in strength, some have even been said to be able to withstand hurricane force winds.  They have a very high elasticity. Discovering the various factors that contribute to differences in spider web characteristics, such as thickness, could help us learn more about the factors that contribute to their extreme elasticity and could be useful for Material engineering of a material that is both strong and soft. A previous study performed using polarized light microscopy has shown that there is some variation both in the spider silk diameters, and the mechanical characterization of silk.

 

Selection of dog breed draft

Submitted by eehardy on Fri, 10/26/2018 - 13:48

The breed of dogs that should be saved is the havanese. Havenese are a small breed of dogs that have a very long life span and often have good health. Larger breeds of dogs could more quickly be reestablished by breeding wild/non domestic wolves or coyotes, but it would take many,many more years and cycles to return to smaller breeds of dogs. Smaller breeds of dogs are also easier for people such as the elderly to take care of and have in their house, and studies have shown that having a pet can help reduce symptoms of dementia, agitation, and loneliness in the elderly. Tennis player Venus Williams has a havenese, and is still able to take care of him despite her busy lifestyle. Havenese are very friendly, happy, loving, and easy to take care of, making them the perfect choice. 

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