Rethinking Stereotypes Perfect Paragraph

Submitted by sbrownstein on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 13:29

Two contradicting stereotypes were given to the Native Americans in the United States: bloodthirsty savages who attacked the white settlers or helpless victims who had their land and resources striped away from them. The two stereotypes are opposites, yet they possess the same stereotypical image. Native Americans are thought be be wearing feathers, braids, beads and holding spears. Modern Indians do not wear that apparel in this era, therefore society has a preconceived idea that they are no longer present in America. This idea is not true due to the large amount of Native American populations and land that still exists. Native Americans blend in with contemporary society.


Native Americans are not aknowledged by most of the nation due to the fact that their history and culture do not fit into the “Master Narrative”. The “Master Narrative” is the idea that all Americans have one single experience. This experience is a success story of our nation’s growth, based on unity, liberty and equality (Calloway 2-3). Native American history did not follow the typical American experience of accomplishment and therefore was ignored by many historians and Americans to this day. Native American history included hardship, resistance, and tragedy. Most Native American history is not accurate because it has been documented by non-Native Americans. The biased opinions skewed the truth behind the Native Americans beliefs, intentions, and actions in the past. This created a misconception across the nation and has shaped many of the stereotypes seen to this day.



Symplesiomorphies in Vertebrates

Submitted by cwcasey on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 13:21

        To identify differences across families, it is important to have a general idea of the ancestral characteristics that each family share. For example, Myxiniformes, Petromysontiformes, and the rest of the vertebrates all have a braincase, neural crest cells, a tripartite brain and cranial nerves. They also each have an inner ear with at least one semicircular duct, an optic tectum, a muscularized gut tube, and respiratory gills with hemoglobin. Other shared characteristics include a pituitary gland that is divided into an adenohypophysis and a neurohypophysis portion as well as the use of water for respiration and feeding behaviors. These shared ancestral characteristics that are carried out throughout a taxon are referred to as symplesiomorphies.

Cyclostomata pt 1

Submitted by cwcasey on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 13:13

            When looking back to the phylogenetic tree from which all species stem from, one of the groups that is often over looked is the Cyclostomata. This group is one of the earliest members of the vertebrates who’s name literally translates to “circle mouth” thus referring to their circular jaws. This group breaks down further into two families, Myxiniformes (hagfish) and Petromysontiformes (lampreys). This passage will serve to discuss the similarities and differences between Myxiniformes, Petromysontiformes, and the rest of the vertebrates.

            To start, it is important to have a general idea of the ancestral characteristics that each family share. For example, all three of the above families have a braincase, neural crest cells, a tripartite brain and cranial nerves. They also have an inner ear with at least one semicircular duct, and optic tectum, a muscularized gut tube, and respiratory gills with hemoglobin. These shared ancestral characteristics are referred to as symplesiomorphies and can be seen in every vertebrate living today.

Part of Research Lab Application

Submitted by sbrownstein on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 13:04

I would be ecstatic if I had the opportunity to meet with you in order to talk about potentially joining one of your research labs. I am particularly interested in your research about intrinsically disordered proteins and furthermore, its effects on the humans. Yet, I would be more than willing to even shadow another available lab in order to gain experience and learn as much as I can about abnormal protein behavior, fibril growth, or coupling mechanisms of protein channels.

Your advanced research on intrinsically disordered proteins is what captivated me. The contradiction between whether disordered proteins create diversity or disrupt normal protein function and the ambiguity on how they physically interact within the cell intrigues me. I would genuinely love to learn more about this topic and IDPs outcome on the human genome. I believe I would contribute beneficial time to the research and hope learn about not only the topic itself, but new techniques and methodologies I may be introduced to along the way.


Cellular Respiration

Submitted by sditelberg on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 11:02

One of the most important biological processes for all life on Earth is cellular respiration. This process takes place in an organelle known as the mitochondria, colloquially referred to as the "powerhouse of the cell." Three stages encompass cellular respiration: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. The final stage is aerobic and generates the most ATP for the energy put in. Glycolysis is an anaerobic process that uses two ATP molecules and produces 4, resulting in a net gain of two ATP molecules. By breaking down glucose, the cell is able to tap into a bit of the energy stores located in the molecule. Glycolysis takes place outside the mitochondria in the cell's cytoplasm.

A molecule known as Acetyl CoA helps take the pyruvate, the ending molecule of glycolysis, into the matrix of the mitochondria. Here, the Krebs cycle occurs and many electrons are stripped from molecules and their intermediates to eventually be utilized in generating ATP. These electrons are picked up by electron carriers, such as NAD+ and FADH, which transport these electrons to the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation. At the electron transport chain, electrons are pulled through a series of proteins by electronegative oxygen. Along the way, proton pumps establish a gradient in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. The electrons eventually join with oxygen and are released as water, and the protons in the intermembrane space flow down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. When ATP synthase spins, it generates ATP.

Reaction to Nussbaum's "Shame and People with Disabilities"

Submitted by mmaliha on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 10:29

Does the author recommend getting rid of amenities like telephone, staircases and visual signage , and making sure that everyone has access to the same resources? This way, the distinction between the "public world of ordinary citizens" and the "hidden world of disabled people" will lower a lot. But, it might be difficult to get people to comply with these changes, as they may see this as the reverse end of the norm: now instead of catering to abled people, catering to disabled people. 

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Submitted by mmaliha on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 10:27

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 makes it illegal for discrimination against disabled people for purposes of service or employment. The ADA defines protected disabilities as those that substantially restricts/limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual. How does one define "major life activities"? According to the US Equal Opportunity and Employment Commission, these activities include hearing, seeing, speaking, walking, breathing, caring for oneself, learning or working. But one type of activity might be more substantial/major to one person than another type. How does the ADA account for these subjective preferences in their rules? It is also stated that an employer does not have to provide reasonable accommodations if it imposes an "undue hardship" (significant difficulty or expense relative to employer's size, financial resources, and nature of operation). Does this not hinge upon civil rights of disabled persons seeking employment? Though if we consider it the other way, not allowing businesses to make reasonable choices for their profit might be infringing on their own corporate rights.

Homework draft

Submitted by cdkelly on Thu, 09/13/2018 - 02:45

The primary difference between research and review articles is that research articles describe a particular project and all of the involved components. Whereas review articles describe an entire area of research and all of the relevant studies working toward a similar goal. The research article has the level 1 headings summary, introduction, methods and materials, results and discussion. It also contains level 2 headings in the methods and results, both covering specific parts of their respective sections. In the review article, the level one headings include an abstract, an introduction, sections for myrmecomorphy, myrmecophily, and myrmecophagy, as well as a brief discussion at the end. Like the research article, it also has level 2 headings.

I found it interesting that the review article contained more level 2 headings, but it makes sense since the review is drawing from so many different sources. Also, the writing style of the review came off as more digestible because it was meant to describe a more broad topic.

Glioblastoma background research

Submitted by cdkelly on Wed, 09/12/2018 - 23:38

    Much like other solid tumors, GBM tumorigenesis leads to oxygen deprivation of specific regions and consequently hypoxia. This lack of oxygen tension in critical areas causes the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which then causes the overexpression of VEGF. The resultant ligand binds to growth factor receptors on cancerous endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis (Vleeschouwer, 2016). This is an interesting component of cancers in general because the hypoxic areas that come from this process normally lead to cell death, but CSCs, specifically in GBM, thrive under these conditions due to the aforementioned mechanisms of angiogenesis.

There are currently two theories that aim to explain the heterogeneity of GBM solid tumors and the like: the stochastic model and the hierarchy model. The stochastic model posits that the heterogeneity of tumor cells results from both intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting cells with the same mutations. On the other hand, the hierarchy model takes a more nuanced approach by suggesting that only a few CSCs can initiate growth of a tumor, and the heterogeneity of the GBM tumor cells arises from the related cells being at different points in development/differentiation. This model points to the small subset of CSCs being the root of cancerous growth, resistance, and recurrence (Vleeschouwer, 2016). The issue then becomes identifying the cancer stem cells

Interest in Geomorphology Course

Submitted by lmikaelian on Wed, 09/12/2018 - 22:06

My interests lie in environmental microbiology and astrobiology. I’ve taken a few of [REDACTED]'s microbiology courses, including his summer field course, [REDACTED]. Many of my class projects in his classes and during my summer research, I worked with samples collected from sites from Inyo County, California, including at Deep Springs Lake and the hot springs at Little Hot Creek. I’m interested in these areas because of the growing body of literature coming out of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other researchers publishing in the field of astrobiology. These researchers are looking at hot springs here on Earth—in Inyo County’s hot springs and in Yellowstone National Park—as in situ models for what life on Mars may have looked like millions of years ago. One study published in May this year—while we were on the field course—examined evidence of microbial respiration preserved in mineralized microbial mats. The authors of the study suggested that we may find similar-looking fossils on Mars. Of course, it’s hard for astrobiologists to get close enough to find fossils like these on another celestial body. Until we have the resources to send manned missions to other bodies like Mars, Saturn’s moon Enceladus, or Jupiter’s moon Europa, etc., we can observe them from afar and identify geophysical features—namely, liquid water—that indicate a hospitable environment.

I’ve built up experience in environmental microbiology through [REDACTED]’s classes, as well as a soil microbiology course I’m currently taking. I’ve also taken other environmental science courses, such as [REDACTED]'s biogeochemistry course. I think that geomorphology is probably a key subject for me to build up my knowledge in. Being able to identify the geological features that astrobiologists look for, like surface or subsurface water or evidence of such, historic glaciers, vulcanism, tidal heating, etc., understanding why astrobiologists may look for these things, would be very useful to me in the future.


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