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Retrograde Movement

Submitted by lgarneau on Wed, 04/24/2019 - 18:16

Action potentials are generated in axon hillock, opening sodium channels as they go (starts moving in all directions). The ones on the right, are depolarized and have not seen action potentials yet. The ones on the left (retrograde) have closed inactivation gates which are essentially on a timer. Things that are retrograde are in absolute refractory, the things that are anterograde are depolarized.


Submitted by lgarneau on Tue, 04/23/2019 - 16:11

I could help them figure out whether or not it was typical "middle age forgetfulness" by suggesting they should have a neuropsychological evaluation. They are the most common way to diagnose major NCDs. The tests are extensive clinical reviews which assess learning and memory. I could even adopt my own version of this if my family member is unwilling to get evaluated. I could ask questions about their day or questions about things that they definitely should remember. Although this is not as reliable, it is a good indicator if they should actually get professionally evaluated or not.

Isopentyl Alcohol

Submitted by lgarneau on Tue, 04/23/2019 - 11:38

In this lab, isopentyl alcohol and acetic acid were reacted using the process of esterification to produce an ester, isopentyl acetate. The starting materials were reacted using conditions specific to the reaction being performed and some of the target product was obtained in 25.6% yield. The method in which this reaction took place was esterification, where water was removed to force the reaction to move toward its products, an ester and water. The products were analyzed by observing the odor and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The odor of the product appeared to be banana-like, closely resembling the smell of the candy banana Runts. This smell is indicative of an ester, specifically isopentyl acetate.

Sunflecks and UVR8

Submitted by lgarneau on Fri, 04/19/2019 - 13:30

Sunflecks are transient patches of light that leak through openings in the canopy and interrupt shade. Sunflecks are ecophysiological and agricultural sources of energy for carbon gain. However, scientists have a very limited molecular understanding of how plant organs perceive and respond to sunflecks. In recent studies, the UVR8 photoreceptor has aided in advances toward an understanding of the physiology and molecular mechanisms behind sunflecks.

Genetics Behind Eating Disorders

Submitted by lgarneau on Fri, 04/19/2019 - 10:00

In this study, the researchers were exploring the genetics behind eating disorders. Researchers know that there is approximately a 50 to 80 percent chance of developing an eating disorder based off of the little knowledge known about specific genes. These researchers decided to take a new approach to dig deep in the genetics behind eating disorders and clear up some of the gray area that remains. This study examines the neuropeptide/neurotrophic factor in the signaling pathway which function in the brain. These factors work, in the brain specifically, to regulate appetite. They also work in other areas of the body such as the gut to assist in digestion and nutrient absorption.

Benzoin to an Alcohol

Submitted by lgarneau on Thu, 04/18/2019 - 12:28

In this lab benzoin was reduced with sodium borohydride, a reducing agent, to produce an alcohol. The starting materials were reacted using conditions specific to the reaction being performed and the target product was obtained in 35.19% yield. When an aldehyde or ketone is reacted with NaBH4, followed by an acidic-water workup, an alcohol is the product. The product was analyzed using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and by obtaining melting points. The spots on plate 1 indicate that the recrystallized product (spot B) only contained one component. The component’s rf value was found to be 0.43 that when compared to the spots found on B which have rf values of 0.87 and 0.91, is more polar. An alcohol is more polar than an alcohol or ketone, which indicated that the product was correctly obtained.

SNP - Better Performing Muscles

Submitted by lgarneau on Thu, 04/18/2019 - 09:51

After analysis of SNP data from Promethease I was able to distinguish one of my good conditions. Muscle Performance, which is popular on SNPedia, is regarded to as a good condition for me. The Rsid is rs1815739(C;C). This specific SNP is for, “Better performing muscles. Likely sprinter. This genotype indicates better performing muscles, particularly for sprinting and power sports. Fast-twitch muscle fibers are able to produce alpha-actinin-3. Professional sprinters usually have this, although it is less common for endurance athletes.” This SNP was determined, “in the ACTN3 gene, which encodes a premature stop codon in a muscle protein called alpha-actinin-3. The polymorphism alters position 577 of the alpha-actinin-3 protein.” Since the muscles are better performing I can use them to their fullest extent. Exercising by doing things such as sprints and HIIT (high intensity interval training) will keep them in great shape.

Analysis of an Iron Coordination Complex

Submitted by lgarneau on Wed, 04/17/2019 - 23:00

The objective of this experiment is to determine whether the complex that was created in Experiment 1 was actually K3[Fe(C2O4)3]·3H2O. More specifically, to determine the molar ratio of C2O42-/Fe3+ that then can be used to find the number of moles of K+. The analysis that was performed is mostly consistent with the complex K3[Fe(C2O4)3]·3H2O. The average mole ratio of C2O42- : Fe3+ that was created was 2.82 moles where the ideal mole ratio was 3 moles. When comparing the actual to theoretical yield, the percent yield is 94% which shows that the analysis was executed quite well with little error. One source of error could have been inaccurate readings of measurements during titrations resulting in rounding errors and throwing off calculations.

Refraction and Reflection

Submitted by lgarneau on Tue, 04/16/2019 - 13:09

The slope is 1.01 and the intercept is approximately 0 (-6.03E-3). The relationship between the angles should be that they are either equal or very close in value. According to Snell’s law the sines of the angles should only differ by the two different indices of refraction. One index being air (1) and the other index should be very close to 1 as the difference between the values of sin incident and refraction should be the other index of reflection.

Autism and Gut Microbiome

Submitted by lgarneau on Fri, 04/12/2019 - 12:57

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there has been a significant increase in the diagnoses of autism. In 2000, one in every 150 children were diagnosed with Autism in the US. More recently, the numbers have increased drastically where one in every 59 children are diagnosed. The search for medical treatments has been ongoing. One promising avenue includes analysis of the gut microbiome. Recent research suggests that changes in normal gut microbiota may be responsible for a large range of diseases. This is specifically of interest for autism research because roughly 30-50% of people with autism have chronic gastrointestinal (GI) problems.


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