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Ancient Space Crystals

Submitted by lgarneau on Fri, 04/26/2019 - 10:11

Many young stars have an abundance of energy and often disperse matter throughout space. The sun which is also star, approximately 4.6 billion years ago, was suspected to disperse matter throughout space. However, there was no hard evidence to prove such until recently. New data focused on a set of ancient blue crystals (hibonite) which suggested that the sun emitted a high flux of cosmic rays in its early history. This flux was a lot higher than scientists and researchers expected. This discovery may provide insight into the roles of star evolution in the creation of elements and materials that eventually assemble into planets.
Patel, N. V. (2018, July 31). Ancient space crystals may prove the sun threw heated tantrums as a tot. Retrieved from

GMO Survey

Submitted by lgarneau on Thu, 04/25/2019 - 18:45

Responses to Questions 4 through 7 of GMO Survey. Questions 4 through 7 aimed to gather respondents opinions on influential motives for modifying foods. On average, 69.16% of respondents agreed that modifications in order to help better developing/growing populations were acceptable as well as modifications to combat pests/diseases. In contrast, only 25% of respondents, were in favor of modifying food to make it more marketable.

Resistance - Slope and Y-intercept

Submitted by lgarneau on Thu, 04/25/2019 - 14:53

The two parameters for this graph are the slope and the y-intercept. The y-intercept is voltage and the slope is the resistance. The values are as we expected, they were 96.3 for the slope and -0.0013 for the y-intercept. The error of the slope is 0.297 and the error of the y-intercept is 0.0102. The relationship that we described for question 3 matches up perfectly with Ohm’s law. We stipulated that the relationship was directly proportional and looking at Ohm’s law this seems to be true if the voltage were to increase then the current should have a corresponding increase.

Retrograde Movement

Submitted by lgarneau on Wed, 04/24/2019 - 18:16

Action potentials are generated in axon hillock, opening sodium channels as they go (starts moving in all directions). The ones on the right, are depolarized and have not seen action potentials yet. The ones on the left (retrograde) have closed inactivation gates which are essentially on a timer. Things that are retrograde are in absolute refractory, the things that are anterograde are depolarized.


Submitted by lgarneau on Tue, 04/23/2019 - 16:11

I could help them figure out whether or not it was typical "middle age forgetfulness" by suggesting they should have a neuropsychological evaluation. They are the most common way to diagnose major NCDs. The tests are extensive clinical reviews which assess learning and memory. I could even adopt my own version of this if my family member is unwilling to get evaluated. I could ask questions about their day or questions about things that they definitely should remember. Although this is not as reliable, it is a good indicator if they should actually get professionally evaluated or not.

Isopentyl Alcohol

Submitted by lgarneau on Tue, 04/23/2019 - 11:38

In this lab, isopentyl alcohol and acetic acid were reacted using the process of esterification to produce an ester, isopentyl acetate. The starting materials were reacted using conditions specific to the reaction being performed and some of the target product was obtained in 25.6% yield. The method in which this reaction took place was esterification, where water was removed to force the reaction to move toward its products, an ester and water. The products were analyzed by observing the odor and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The odor of the product appeared to be banana-like, closely resembling the smell of the candy banana Runts. This smell is indicative of an ester, specifically isopentyl acetate.

Sunflecks and UVR8

Submitted by lgarneau on Fri, 04/19/2019 - 13:30

Sunflecks are transient patches of light that leak through openings in the canopy and interrupt shade. Sunflecks are ecophysiological and agricultural sources of energy for carbon gain. However, scientists have a very limited molecular understanding of how plant organs perceive and respond to sunflecks. In recent studies, the UVR8 photoreceptor has aided in advances toward an understanding of the physiology and molecular mechanisms behind sunflecks.

Genetics Behind Eating Disorders

Submitted by lgarneau on Fri, 04/19/2019 - 10:00

In this study, the researchers were exploring the genetics behind eating disorders. Researchers know that there is approximately a 50 to 80 percent chance of developing an eating disorder based off of the little knowledge known about specific genes. These researchers decided to take a new approach to dig deep in the genetics behind eating disorders and clear up some of the gray area that remains. This study examines the neuropeptide/neurotrophic factor in the signaling pathway which function in the brain. These factors work, in the brain specifically, to regulate appetite. They also work in other areas of the body such as the gut to assist in digestion and nutrient absorption.

Benzoin to an Alcohol

Submitted by lgarneau on Thu, 04/18/2019 - 12:28

In this lab benzoin was reduced with sodium borohydride, a reducing agent, to produce an alcohol. The starting materials were reacted using conditions specific to the reaction being performed and the target product was obtained in 35.19% yield. When an aldehyde or ketone is reacted with NaBH4, followed by an acidic-water workup, an alcohol is the product. The product was analyzed using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and by obtaining melting points. The spots on plate 1 indicate that the recrystallized product (spot B) only contained one component. The component’s rf value was found to be 0.43 that when compared to the spots found on B which have rf values of 0.87 and 0.91, is more polar. An alcohol is more polar than an alcohol or ketone, which indicated that the product was correctly obtained.

SNP - Better Performing Muscles

Submitted by lgarneau on Thu, 04/18/2019 - 09:51

After analysis of SNP data from Promethease I was able to distinguish one of my good conditions. Muscle Performance, which is popular on SNPedia, is regarded to as a good condition for me. The Rsid is rs1815739(C;C). This specific SNP is for, “Better performing muscles. Likely sprinter. This genotype indicates better performing muscles, particularly for sprinting and power sports. Fast-twitch muscle fibers are able to produce alpha-actinin-3. Professional sprinters usually have this, although it is less common for endurance athletes.” This SNP was determined, “in the ACTN3 gene, which encodes a premature stop codon in a muscle protein called alpha-actinin-3. The polymorphism alters position 577 of the alpha-actinin-3 protein.” Since the muscles are better performing I can use them to their fullest extent. Exercising by doing things such as sprints and HIIT (high intensity interval training) will keep them in great shape.


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