Candida albicans are fungal pathogens that infect humans. It grows in various forms either in a yeast form or a pseudohypae form. The change in conformation of Candida albicans is based on what cell type it originally is. The bacteria can be unicellular, or multicellular to determine the fate of shape. Candida albicans are harmless in general, but can lead to diseases when they over grow. Candida albicans are found mostly in patients with HIV, transplant recipients, and chemotherapy patients. The morphology of Candida albicans depend on the environment they are placed. Temperature, pH, salt concentration are all factors that potentially influence the appearance of Candida albicans. Through a method called transition, Candida albicans change their morphology. Unlike Eukaryotic cell, where gene regulation is the key factor of determinate cell, bacterial cells have a high plasticity to the environment they are in.
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The lab, "Restriction Enzyme Digestion of DNA" was done to observe how restriction enzymes function in DNA.
Different restriction enzymes were used to compare the difference in the DNA. The
method of gel electrophoresis was used; however, the data did not appear properly
because the bans on the gel did not appear. There was no observable evidence that could support
that different restriction enzymes create different typr of DNA fragments.
I labeled two tubes as one (-) serum, and another as (+) serum. I pipetted 25µl of Candida albican culture in both test tubes. Then I transferred 5µl, 10µl, 25µl, or 50µl of mouse serum into the (+) labelled tube. To create a total of five tubes. I observed the sample under the microscope, then placed into a 37℃ incubator. I set the test tubes in the incubator for 2-3 hours, then observed under the microscope again to see the transition of cells.
Candida albicans are fungal pathogens that can be infected in humans. It can grow in various forms either a yeast form, which is unicellular or pseudohyphae form. Candida albicans are harmless in general, but can lead to diseases when they over grow. The Candida albicans are found mostly in patients with HIV, transplant recipients, and chemotherapy patients. The morphology of Candida albicans depends on the environment they are placed. Temperature, pH, salt concentration are all factors that determines the appearance of Candida albicans. Through a method called transition, Candida albicans can easily change their morphology. Unlike eukaryotic cell’s gene regulation, in bacterial cells the environment can easily manipulate the gene they are in.
The day and time the photos were taken can be said to be the same. The lighting is similar to one another. However, panel A is more zoomed in the picture than panel a. The stem and the grass patch can be seen in panel a, where the distance the photographer was standing was different. The orientation and lighting look quite the same, but it is a little brighter in A than a.
For panel b and c. The lighting is the same. The zoom, the adjusting of scale is different causing panel B, and C only showing the parking lot and the building, where panel b, and c show the tree patch and the components panel B, and C are presenting. In panel b, and c, there also is a scale bar at the top right corner which in Panel B, and C it is invisible.
The quality of photos, color, and the size as on big panel match between both panels. The lack of instruction in where the photographer took the photograph made the replicator not able to have the correct zoom to the tree, nor the map. Also if the photographer has instructed how to change the ratio of each photo to create the one big panel, there would be no difference in each panel size.
The experiment to unboil an egg was performed in the UC Irvine’s lab. The fascinating idea of unboiling an egg mesmerized my research group to repeat the procedure provided by UC Irvine with some modifications to visually understand the denaturation and renaturation of proteins through an egg. We spent about a month renaturing the protein by using a chemical called Urea. We saw the boiled egg dissolving into solution, and had reversed its state into a raw egg. We also placed the egg into the gel electrophoresis to separate the protein and the molecular weight to compare it with the raw egg.
The migratory pattern in North American Birds tend to move in north-south direction. It is known that most migratory birds breed in the south and returns to the north. In general, it is found that birds living in the southern hemisphere will not migrate to the north as much as the northern birds travel. Some bird population only travel in the day, another in night, or even both. There is no direct pattern of what type of family travel when, however, this difference in time is advantageous for birds. It can be reduced competition or running away from predator. Birds can flight high up to 2000 to 4000 in the sky as well. Every bird has a different altitude they travel in.
The experiment of unboiling an egg was performed to reconstruct the UC Irvine’s egg experiment. The fascinating idea of unboiling an egg mesmerized my research group to repeat the procedure provided by UC Irvine with some modifications to visually understand the denaturation and renaturation of proteins through an egg. The experiment was carried out for about a month renaturing the protein by using a chemical called Urea. The boiled egg did dissolve into solution, and had reversed its state into a raw egg. Then the egg was placed into the gel electrophoresis to separate the protein and the molecular weight to compare it with the raw egg that has never been cooked yet.
The difference between something that is cooked, and raw depends on the state of the protein. When something is cooked, proteins inside the cell are denatured from the proteins. Heat is a major component used to denature proteins to change the physical state of a compound. Because heat is usually released into the environment, it is almost impossible to renature a cell because the lost heat cannot be absorbed again. However, UC Irvine found a new approach to renature a protein to reverse the direction of the physical state. Urea, a chemical used for renaturation is a compound found in livers, that are soluble and produce ammonia to deaminate amino acids in the body. It is a waste product, but the characteristics of urea allows the denatured protein to renature.
Figure 1. Penguine feather morphology is different during their juvenille stage and adult stage. Baby penguin is called a nestling and they have a soft fur-like feather that is much fuzzy than the adult penguine's feather coating. The length of the feather is longer than adult feather. Due to this feather morphology, nestlings do not have a streamline shape of body, raher it has a round fluffy body shape. This feather is suitable for nestlings to maintain body teperature in the cold artic weather. Available at https://farm5.staticflickr.com/4014/4696423445_4705431d8f_z_d.jpg by Ron Hopkins