Our hypothesis was that exercise will have no effect on body temperature. We recorded a mean resting temperature of 98.24 ºF, and mean temperatures of 97.99 ºF and 98 ºF for the first and second 1-minute sets of jumping jacks respectively. There was a 0.24 ºF drop in temperature after the first set and a 0.25 ºF drop after the second set, which shows that our hypothesis was not supported by the data. There was relatively low variation within the data, with a standard deviation of 0.93 for body temperature at rest, and standard deviations of 0.76 and 0.75 for each respective set of jumping jacks. This finding was supported by the data acquired by the rest of the class: across the data acquired by all four groups, the mean body temperature was 98.59 ºF at rest and 98.26 ºF after both sets of jumping jacks, with standard deviations of 0.86, 0.77, and 0.82 respectively. There was less variance in the forehead temperatures after each set of exercises than the forehead temperatures at rest.
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SNPs that Promethease categorizes as “not set” are ones that have no distinct “good” or “bad” repute. One of these identified in this Promethease report is rs11803731(A;A), a SNP which is associated with hair curliness. The genotype that is homozygous for the “T” allele is associated with curlier hair, whereas the homozygous “A” genotype is associated with straighter hair. This individual has the homozygous “A” genotype, which means that they likely have hair that is less curly and on the straighter side. rs11803731 is found on the Trichohyalin (TCHH) gene which, according to a study of Australians of European ancestry, accounts for an estimated 6% of the variance in hair morphology. The TCHH gene codes for trichohyalin, a protein that is highly expressed in hair follicles and the innermost layer of the hair shaft, as well as being detected in other places such as areas of the epidermis, in the hard palate, and in the nail matrix. Trichohyalin links the heads and tails of keratin chains and is therefore involved in the cross-linking of keratin intermediate filaments, overall contributing to the mechanical strength of the inner sheath of root follicles and other keratinized epithelial tissues.
The poster gives some information but also leaves some things out or does not give full explanations for details important to understanding the poster’s content. For example, an explanation of a “monochromatic interaction” is touched upon but not fully explained, or phrased in such a way so as to make it clear that the sentence in question is defining what a monochromatic interaction is. The figure legends also did not include quite enough information for a reader to fully understand what they were showing and what they illustrated about the topic of the poster. The objects included however were all of reasonably good quality, and contributed nicely to the overall appearance of the poster.
The poster is organized into roughly five section: Introduction, Results, Conclusion, References, and Acknowledgements. There is no Abstract or a defined Methods section, part of which seems to have been added to the end of the Introduction. The poster is fairly easy to follow, as all the text is congregated on the left side of the poster and the Figures referenced are either on the right side of the poster in line with the text that mentions them, or are integrated in the text where relevant. However the fact that all the brightly colored figures are separated from, and are yet in line with, the text makes the poster legible. For the most part the information is easy to find, however the section headings are vertically along the edge of the poster which makes figuring out where one section ends and another begins mildly challenging despite the bolded subheadings which attempt to differentiate between sections. Beyond the bolded subheadings there is no real emphasis on any other text. Each section is focused enough to give enough information about the topic, however there is some overlap in the sections, such as where there are some methods mentioned in the introduction. The writing is focused in short sections, none longer than a paragraph. Although the overall tone and style of language is appropriate for scientific writing, there are some grammatical and structural errors in the text, mostly noticeable in the way sentences are put together—the phrasing is often rather clunky in a hard-to-understand kind of way. The amount of text however is suitable for a poster, and it is not overly text-heavy.
In terms of design, the poster is neatly arranged, with a minimal color palette and layout that makes it easy to read and easy on the eyes. The left side of the poster is taken up the main chunk of text that is broken up by sub-headings and three graphs and and two tables, whereas the right side of the poster is almost entirely figures with the “References” and “Acknowledgements” sections at the bottom. There is consistency an intentionality behind the placement of all the objects and the way they are lined up. The only color besides gray and navy is in the figures on the right side of the poster, which have red, blue, green and lavender/pink elements. Both sections of Figure 4 have a gray background, whereas Figure 1 has a white background. Figures 2 and 3, which are integrated into the text on the left side of the poster have navy blue elements, while Tables 1 and 2—also integrated into the text—are in varying shades of light gray. The main title and the headings for each main section (Introduction, Results, and Conclusion) are white text on a medium-gray background, and the authors names and affiliations are black text on a light gray background. The text is a legible size and sans-serif font. The title is the largest, with the headings and subheadings that are slightly smaller. The title is in title case and the headings for the Introduction, Results, and Conclusion are all in uppercase only, while the subheadings are in a slightly different font and are bolded.
Another bad SNP—this one associated with a medical condition—is rs3793784, which is connected to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Macular degeneration is the loss of central vision caused by damage to and degeneration of the macula on the retina, and can be caused by aging. rs3793784 has been linked to age-related macular degeneration both on its own and in conjunction with another SNP. Individually, both heterozygotes and homozygotes have an increased risk of developing ARMD, with a ratio of 1.51 for the C/G genotype, and 1.60 for the G/G genotype. This individual has the C/G genotype, which puts them at a x1.5 increased risk of developing ARMD. However, there are many factors that can cause ARMD besides genetics, many of which are controllable. For example, smoking, being overweight, and high blood pressure, as well as long-term exposure to the sun without eye protection can all contribute to an increased risk of developing ARMD. If the individual knows they have a higher than average risk of developing ARMD, they can take steps to mitigate some of these known factors.
SNPs that are “not set” have no distinct “good” or “bad” repute. One of these identified in the Promethease report is rs11803731(A;A), a SNP on the Trichohyalin (TCHH) gene which is associated with hair curliness. A study of Australians of European ancestry determined that the TCHH gene accounts for an estimated 6% of the hair morphology variance. The genotype that is homozygous for the “T” allele is associated with curlier hair, whereas the homozygous “A” genotype is associated with straighter hair. One of the popular SNPs identified on SNPedia is a SNP in the oxytocin receptor which influences social behavior and personality. The rs53576 SNP in this individual was identified as having the A/G variation, which is classified as “bad” because the G to A change in the “good” G/G genotype is associated with a potential lack of empathy. According to studies, individuals with the G allele are more sensitive and empathetic than those with even a single A allele, and may even handle stress better.
Another good SNP identified is rs9264942(C;T), which has implications in HIV viral load. The viral load is the quantity of a virus in a given volume, and the set point is the viral load reached after the immune system begins to attempt to fight the virus. This genetic link to a reduced viral load means that The C/C genotype has the most significant impact, as its correlated with a 90% reduction in viral load compared to other polymorphisms, however the C/T variation identified in this individual is associated with a 60% reduction in HIV viral load. It also reportedly accounts for 6.5% of the 15% variation in the viral load set point in HIV infected individuals who are asymptomatic, and can also be associated with a reduced viral load set point in HIV. This means that should this individual contract HIV, they will likely have a lower viral load than individuals without the variation.
Of the SNPs analyzed in the Promethease report, 55.94% were good, 0.97% were bad, and 43.09% were not set. Of the good SNPs, one identified was rs7294919, which shows a fairly strong link to a reduced volume of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that is critically involved in learning and memory, particularly associated with the ability to form long-term memories. It shrinks with age, and its size is diminished in disorders such as Alzheimer’s. The decrease in hippocampal size is associated with the T allele, each copy of which is associated with a 107.8 mm3 decrease, while the C allele has a connection to a moderate increase in hippocampal volume. This individual has the C/T variation, which means that there is a less reduced hippocampal volume.
Sanguivory is a dietary habit that involves feeding on blood. While a lot of sanguivorous animals will substitute their diets with food from other sources, some are obligate sanguivores and can survive on a diet of blood only. An example is the vampire bat, and there are three species that are obligate sanguivores: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata), and the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi). There have been multiple theories about the evolution of vampire bats, including that they may have evolved from frugivorous, carnivorous or nectarivorous ancestors, but recent analysis has suggested that they are descended from insectivores. Blood is a very challenging food source, and so requires specialized adaptations in both anatomy and physiology. Vampire bats have short, cone-shaped muzzles and incisors and canines that are specialized for cutting, and they are very maneuverable on land, and can walk, jump, and run by using their forelimbs. Although the gut microbiome of the common vampire bat is taxonomically more similar to insectivorous and carnivorous bats than to frugivorous (fruit-eating) bats, and although insectivorous, carnivorous, and frugivorous bats all have similarly functioning gut microbiomes, vampire bats have gut microbiomes that are unique. A study on “Hologenomic adaptations underlying the evolution of sanguivory in the common vampire bat” (Mendoza et al. 2018) suggests that the function of the microbiome may be influenced more by phylogeny than taxonomy, and that the vampire bat’s gut microbiome is specialized for its demanding diet.