It was determined that unknown #6 is 2-hexanone. The reaction with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine was a positive test confirming that the compound was either a ketone or and aldehyde and not an alcohol. The Schiff’s test showed a light pink color meaning it was a negative test determining that the compound was a ketone and not an aldehyde. The iodoform test showed that the compound was water soluble and formed a yellow precipitate confirming the compound to be a methyl ketone. The melting point of the compound was found to be at 111-112°C which is comparable to the melting point of 2-hexanone (110°C). 5-phenoxy-2-pentanone also has a comparable melting point of 110°C, but after observing the H-NMR spectrum of the two compounds it showed that unknown #6 was 2-hexanone. This is due to the peaks visible at 2.5-2.0 ppm and the peaks at 0.5-1.5 ppm. 5-phenoxy-2-pentanone shows peaks further downfield due to the presence of a double bonded oxygen and an oxygen bonded to a benzene ring.
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We conducted a survey for students at UMass Amherst to collect their thoughts about how gene editing should be used and regulated in the medical field pertaining to the ethics. Survey options consisted of 4 options: strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, and strongly disagree. We used a Likert-scale for the data to be easily analyzed via a median or mode and displayed in a bar graph. It is the most widely used approach in survey research. A survey pertaining to 3 different scenarios regarding germline gene editing was sent out to 40 UMass students. Each scenario included 3 survey questions. We analyzed how students believe gene editing should be controlled and therefore what regulations need to be executed. Visual representations of data from surveys demonstrated these conclusions. The data collected regarding the ethics of the 3 scenarios will be pooled together as a consensus overview of germline gene editing and displayed via a pie chart.
Modern gene editing tools have the potential to treat diseases from a new perspective. A commonly popular technique used frequently to achieve gene editing is a CRISPR-Cas9 protein complex. With the use of CRISPR-Cas9, specific genes are targeted and the DNA sequence is then modified. Researchers are currently practicing gene editing in various subjects and performing the techniques in experimental research. On the other hand, scientists are delaying the use of gene editing for safety concerns and regulations. For our project, we will be discussing the ethics and various applications of germline gene editing. Germline editing changes the human embryo genome at an early stage. Germline editing also can have an affect on every cell including sperm and egg cells and also may potentially be passed onto future generations.
Hummingbirds have also adapted for flight. In order to fly they must generate enough lift. Generating more lift requires either increasing the velocity of the wings movement or increasing the wing area. However, in study looking at the correlation between wing size and metabolic rate the wing size relative to body size did not correlate with metabolic rate during hovering. Overall hummingbirds may not reduce metabolic expenditure by manipulating wing size.
Hummingbirds have adapted their digestive system in order to sufficiently support their high caloric intake. They use their newly ingested sugars as a fuel for flight. They are able to quickly digest sugars for immediate use. It takes a hummingbird about 40 minutes to turn food into fuel whereas it can take a human up to 40 hours to digest. This is partly due to their small digestive tracks and the absorption of nutrients across the intestine. They also have a high capacity for paracellular and transcellular movement of glucose.
Hummingbirds have a high daily energy requirement for their size compared to other organisms including humans. The average sized human requires 2,000-2,500 kcal/day whereas a 3.5kg hummingbird requires 7.65kcal/day. If humans needed the same average intake as hummingbirds it would require about 800 can of coke in a day to meet the caloric requirements. Hummingbirds have high metabolic rates and various adaptions to make this work. They have a sufficient oxygen delivery system to tissues, rapid conversion of oxygen and nutrients to ATP, a high capacity to transport stored nutrients to fuel, and a digestive capacity to supply uptake of nutrients at sufficient rates. Hummingbirds muscle morphology is also highly adapted to suit their lifestyles. They have high capillary density to support high rates of oxygen delivery along with a high mitochondrial density.
Management and economics of energy are important for fitness. Animals allocate resources for reproduction, growth, and maintenance. R type species have short life spans and lots of reproduction while K type species have long life spans and produce few offspring that they invest a lot of energy into. The rate of energy usage is also an important consideration. The rate of energy usage determines how quickly an organism will go through their stored resources and how much food is required to get from the environment. Organisms have unique physiological and anatomical traits that help them manage energy acquisition, storage, and utilization.
A Chinese biophysics researcher, He Jiankui, performed germline editing via CRISPR-CAS9 on human embryos in order to make them resistant to HIV. The procedure was done without consent to the babies of course and without the permission from the government. The issue with germline editing is that the effects of the genetic mutation on future generations in not yet known. Should germline gene editing be approved for preventing HIV in humans without confident knowledge in the effect on future generations? In other words is the immediate benefit of germline gene editing worth the potential cost of future generations?
In a study performed by Falcone et al the caloric expenditure of aerobic and resistance exercises were compared. Subjects completed 4 different exercise interventions at different intensities for 30 minutes each. The four exercises consisted of weight training (squats, chest press, shoulder press, and seated row), treadmill running, stationary cycling, and a hydraulic resistance machine. Three were 9 participants whom were all male and between the ages of 18-35. Subjects were asked to consume the same food 48 hours before each session (12).
Triglycerides are also proposed to have an impact on the development of neuropathy. Triglycerides and obesity correlate with diabetic neuropathy independent of glucose control. Smith and Singleton found that obesity and triglycerides were related to small axon loss whereas hyperglycemia was related to large fiber loss indicating that hypertriglyceridemia and obesity have an independent effect on peripheral neuropathy (8). Wiggin et al analyzed samples from a double-blind placebo clinical trial with Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) at two doses. Since the intervention had no effect, data from three arms (placebo, 1.5 and 3.0 gm doses) were combined. The investigators found a correlation between elevated triglycerides and mixed small and large myelinated fiber density (MFD). Further higher triglycerides were associated with those whose neuropathy progressed as evidenced by changes in MFD (9).