In this lab, several chemical tests and MP determination were performed on an unknown compound to determine the structure and the identity of the unknown. Also, an HNMR of the unknown was analyzed to confirm the identity. In the first test, unknown #36 was mixed in 2,4-DNP in a test tube. Two drops of the unknown were mixed. A yellow-orange precipitate formed, indicating the carbonyl group is not conjugated. Schiff's test was then performed where unknown #36 (1 drop) was added to the schiff's reagent (0.7 mL). A pale pink color was observed, indicating that unknown must be a ketone. The final test was the iodoform, where the unknown (1 drop) was dissolved in 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (0.5 mL), 3M NaOH (0.5 mL) and iodine solution (0.75 mL) and mixed thoroughly. A yellow precipitate formed, indicating it was a ketone.
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The structure of the human brain is one of the most complex organs in the body that is continuously researched for a deeper understanding of its function. Communication within the brain occurs between numerous neurons that transmit messages electrically within a neuron and chemically between neurons. Messages travel down a neuron from the dendrites that receive a message and then through the axon towards the synaptic cleft where the chemicals are dispensed. The synaptic cleft is a designated area for chemicals to be released from a neuron and transmitted to the next. Chemicals bind to the corresponding receptors of the upcoming neuron to be stimulated and continue its path throughout the brain. Chemicals such as serotonin and dopamine are transmitted throughout the brain via neurons. Serotonin relates to sleep, eating, and mood, which are critical for human well-being.
Insecure adolescents may lack serotonin and as a result have trouble sleeping, have disturbed eating habits, and unpleasant moods. To help with these consequences, doctors may prescribe drugs that contain selective reuptake inhibitors to allow serotonin to linger longer in the synaptic cleft. This will prevent serotonin from being reabsorbed by the previous neuron and not being able to be transmitted to the next neuron. As a result, students could slowly become in a slightly better mood and state. Selective reuptake inhibitors are a possible solution for adolescents that have a hard time dealing with their imperfections and low self-esteem. The pituitary gland, also found in the brain, is responsible for the release of hormones and consequently, important during puberty.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized as a progressive weakness of muscles along with a shortened life span. As of today, there is no successful treatment. DMD is an inherited disease found on the X sex chromosome. Recently, a study demonstrated editing of the mice germline, using CRISPR/Cas9, to correct the dystrophin gene (Dmd) mutation. After monitoring muscle structure and function animals showed “2 to 100% correction of the Dmd gene”. The results reflected effective regeneration of muscle of the corrected cells, which gives hope that this could be a new treatment for disease-causing mutations in muscle cells for patients suffering by DMD.
The structure of the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body that psychologists continue to research for deeper explanations and understanding of how it functions. Communication in the brain occurs between neurons that transmit messages electrically within a neuron and chemically between neurons. Messages travel down a neuron from the dendrites that receive a message and down the axon of the neuron down to the synaptic cleft where the chemicals are dispensed. The synaptic cleft is a designated area for chemicals to be released from a neuron and transmitted to the next. Chemicals bind to the corresponding receptors of the next neuron to be stimulated and continue its path throughout the brain. Chemicals such as serotonin and dopamine are transmitted throughout the brain. Serotonin relates to sleep, eating, and one’s mood, which are important for proper function and well-being of a human.
Recrystallization of trimyristin was processed twice and each melting point was recorded and observed. The tert-butyl methyl ether (3 mL) and nutmeg (1.000 g) were dissolved to obtain crude trimyristin that resulted in a 57.8% recovery yield (0.578 g). After the first recrystallization, ac x 30.2% recovery yield, based on the original amount of nutmeg, was collected. The melting point of the first recrystallization was 53-54 ℃, which is 2℃ under the theoretical melting point. Therefore, we can conclude from this that the product was relatively pure. After, a sample of trimyristin from the first recrystallization (0.167 g) was dissolved in a minimal amount of acetone in the second recrystallization in attempt to obtain a more pure product. A 49.1% recovery yield was attained from the second recrystallization. The corresponding melting point recorded was 54-55℃, which is only 1℃ below the theoretical melting point and reveals that the second recrystallized product is relatively pure.
Myristic acid was produced in a 34.5% yield (0.02g) from the once recrystallized trimyristin. To obtain the theoretical yield for myristic acid, one had to calculate the number of moles present in the hydrolysis of trimyristin and multiply that number by three. This is because one mole of trimyristin is balanced when three moles of myristic acid are present. As a result, the theoretical yield of myristic acid was 0.058 g while the actual yield for the experiment was 0.02 g, which therefore led to a percent yield of 34.5%. To improve the percent yield, the filter paper form the filtration should be allowed to dry overnight to obtain any remaining crystals that may have been stuck on the paper.
For myristic acid, the melting point recorded was 51-52℃, whereas the theoretical melting point is 54.4℃. This demonstrates that the experimental end product was relatively pure. To improve the purity, the trimyristin from the second recrystallization should have been used to measure the melting point because it was more pure than the product from the first recrystallization and thus making the myristic acid more pure.
From pure trimyristin, which was obtained from extraction, recrystallization and hydrolysis of nutmeg, myristic acid was synthesized in this lab. The yield of myristic acid is 34.5%.
Recrystallization of trimyristin was processed twice and each melting point was recorded and observed. The tert-butyl methyl ether (3 mL) and nutmeg (1.000 g) were dissolved to obtain crude trimyristin that resulted in a 57.8% recovery yield (0.578 g). A 30.2% recovery yield, based on the original amount of nutmeg, was obtained from the trimyristin after the first recrystallization. The melting point of the first recrystallization was 53-54 ℃, which is 2℃ under the theoretical melting point. We can conclude from this that the product was relatively pure. A sample of trimyristin from the first recrystallization (0.167 g) was dissolved in a minimal amount of acetone in the second recrystallization in attempt to obtain a more pure product. A 49.1% recovery yield was obtained from the second recrystallization. The melting point recorded was 54-55℃, which is only 1℃ below the theoretical melting point and shows that the second recrystallized product is relatively pure.
To a 10 mL round bottom flask, tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) (3mL) and nutmeg (1.000 g) were added in addition to boiling chips. For ten minutes, the solution was refluxed. The solution was filtered into a tared 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask after the solution had settled. To the round bottom flask, TBME (2 mL) was added and briefly refluxed and then filtered as before. Air was passed over the solution to evaporate the solvent. The crude product (0.578 g) and acetone (7 mL) were added in a 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask to recrystalize. After cooling in an ice bath, the crystals were dried and obtained via suction filtration and were rinsed with cold acetone (~1 mL). A small portion was set aside for the melting point. Trimyristin (0.60 g). 6 M NaOH (2 mL), ethanol (2 mL), and boiling chips were added to clean round bottom flask and refluxed for 45 minutes. The remaining trimyristin was then recrystallized for the second time and was cooled at room temperature for 10 minutes before cooling on ice for an additional 10 minutes. After 45 minutes of hydrolysis, the contents were poured into a clean 50 mL beaker that contained 8 mL of water and 2 mL of concentrated HCl, which was added dropwise. After all the contents were well stirred in the beaker, the solid was collected via suction filtration. The product was rinsed three times with 1 mL water and then allowed to dry overnight.
The documentary focuses on how homo sapiens were able to adapt to multiple environments in various locations without becoming extinct. They had incredible features to withstand harsh climates and tough living conditions and eventually pass their genes to future generations. Our earliest ancestors lived in hot, dry climates in Africa while later on, others lived in isolated freezing temperatures up to -40 ℉. Moreover, certain groups of homo sapiens adapted to live in dry lands with little access to water while others lived by the ocean and depended on sea animals for survival. Homo sapiens acquired valuable skills to allow the creation of sophisticated tools for hunting and consumption of nutrient rich foods, which together expanded the capacities of the brain. Over time, human brains expanded and become capable of performing more complex tasks. The findings of Lucy show how much smaller our brains were when the species first appeared. Paleontologists and archaeologists from around the world have found groundbreaking evidence through fossils and genetic DNA sequencing to find that there are overlapping similarities between the different groups such as Denisovans, Neanderthals, and Homo Sapiens.