The student who followed the methods for the cattail mutualism submitted his or her work (Figure 2). The first difference observed between the original and the replicate were the sizes of the figures and the sizes of the individual panels. The panels in the replicate are smaller and the pictures are not touching each other side by side. The letters, ‘A’, ‘B’, and ‘C’ are underneath the pictures as opposed to on the left bottom corner of the picture. Lastly, the arrow in figure ‘C’ is different to show where the pictures were taken. In terms of the pictures, the quality isn’t the same due to the difference in panel sizes and pixels. The lighting also isn’t the same as the original was taken on a cloudy day and the replicate was taken on a partly cloudy day with some shade. There was also more snow on the ground in the images of the replicates. The colors of the cattail also seem to differ as in the original the plant looks more yellow whereas in the replicate they look more brown. Different frames in the pictures are visible. Figure ‘A’ in the original has a closer view of the cattails compared to figure ‘A’ in the replicate and similar with figure ‘B’. The cattail appear much smaller in the replicate.
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Friedel Crafts reactions occur in organic chemistry and there are two types including alkylation and acylation. Alkylation is the addition of an alkyl chain on a halogen. An example would be adding chlorine with two carbons to a benzene ring and resulting in a benzene ring with an ethyl off the ring. Limitations to be cautious of for these reactions include having no meta-deactivators on the benzene ring, no amino groups, no phenyl or vinyl alkyl halide, and possible rearrangement. If a reaction breaks one of the rules, then the reaction will not take place. On the other hand, there are Friedel Craft acylations such as adding a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to a chlorine. The limitations for these reactions include having no meta-deactivators on the ring and no amino groups on the ring. Similarly to the alkylation limitations, if a limitation is violated then the acylation will not take place.
Ultrasounds are frequently used in the medical field to examine a specific region in the body’s inside. A few purposes include diagnosing pain, infections, or to examine a baby fetus in a women’s uterus. Furthermore, the procedure to perform an ultrasound is simple and requires minimal preparation, making it favorable to practice by nurses and doctors for their patients. An ultrasound is a safe and painless process that involves a probe and an application of ultrasound gel on the skin’s surface to inspect inside the body. High frequency sound waves are then transmitted through the probe and penetrate through the gel into the body. The machine then collects the sound waves and transforms them to create an image on the screen that can be analyzed. Not only can an image be produced but the transducer can additionally show the image in real-time and capture movement in the body’s internal organs such as blood flow. Lastly, the physical features can be shown such as flexibility of tissues. These analytical features allow ultrasound machines to be efficient for monitoring and diagnosing while simultaneously being safe to operate.
Lens are defined as a piece of transparent material that is designed to take in parallel photons. Many people may think of contact lens that individuals, who are farsighted, might wear as a correction for their vision. Contact lens correct farsightedness by converging light rays and increase the eye’s ability to focus. Converging lens are thicker at the middle while diverging lens are thicker at the edges and both types exist depending on what the lens is trying to correct. Since contact lenses rest directly on the eye, they are much thinner than eyeglass lenses that otherwise need to be resistant. They are also shaped to be thin and flexible to fit comfortably on the cornea of the eye. Lastly, lenses are also made to be gas-permeable to allow oxygen to reach the cornea. This explains, why contact lenses are not recommended to wear over a long period of time and advised to wear glasses once in a while to allow the eyes to ‘breathe’.
In this exercise, the methods of one student’s interspecific interaction at UMass was followed by another classmate to replicate the work as accurately as possible. Four different images of a species of yellow flowers were taken and observed. The images were then arranged in a panel with four labeled pictures a, b, c, and d.
The first difference observed between the two figures are the sizes of the figures and the sizes of the individual panels. The first figure on the top is smaller but the proportions appear to be the same as the second figure because the images do not look stretched or squeezed. The quality of the two figures is not the same as the figure on top appears to have a better quality image than the figure on the bottom. In terms of the lighting the pictures, they are similar although the first figure has more contrast between the colors of the yellow flower petals and the color of the brown center with the small clustered seeds.
In the second panel, the ruler is not measuring the same aspect of the flower. The first figure appears to be measuring the length of one yellow petal whereas panel b, in the second figure, has the ruler placed above the flower without touching it and does not cleary measure from one specific point to another. Also, more of the ruler is shown in the first figure. In panel c, the angles in which the pictures were taken are slightly different because the picture in panel c was taken as a higher viewpoint. This further affects what is visible in the background of the pictures.
Lastly, panel d does not match one another’s images. Panel d in the first figure shows two flowers without petals with leaves on stems in the background and panel d in the second figure shows multiple flowers with bright yellow petals with the ground made up of wood chips in the background.
Inferences and Discussion
The several differences mentioned could be a result of different factors of the environment and the methods of how the pictures were taken with a camera and composed in an art application. The proportions of the pictures were most likely discussed but the specific dimensions were not. The pixels could also be different and result in different sizes.
It is also evident that the two students did not have the same quality camera or photography skills, which contributed to the difference in image quality and frame.
In panel b, there most likely were insufficient details on what exactly to measure on the flower and whether to measure it from the side or the top of the flower. In addition, panel c shows differences on the view at which the pictures were taken as panel c in the second figure was taken more from the side as opposed to a slightly birds eye angle.
The last panel was not replicated well, which may have been caused by lack of details, confusion, or not being to find exactly what the student has originally captured. Moreover, the flowers in the first figure may have been trimmed and removed completely if they were dried out.
The electromagnetic spectrum represents the range of frequencies of electromagnetic frequencies with its corresponding wavelengths. The order of increasing frequency is radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma ray. Radio waves capture waves by nearby radio stations to produce tunes through radio speakers. Microwaves are slightly higher in wave frequency and are emitted in kitchen microwaves for heating purposes. The next kind of waves capture heat from either objects or animals can be seen with infrared. The visible waves are the only waves humans are able to see with the naked eye, which includes all the lights and colors produced from red to violet. Following visible waves are ultraviolet waves that are strictly emitted from the sun and can cause sunburns and tans with prolonged exposure. Lastly, x-rays and gamma rays are used in the medical field and for security purposes to capture scans of the body or objects. X-rays consist of x-rays of teeth and scanning images of baggages at the airport. On the other hand, gamma rays are more powerful and dangerous and thus are highly regulated for precaution. In the oncology department, gamma rays are used to treat cancer for certain patients to kill cancerous cells and reduce tumors in the body. The electromagnetic spectrum explains what humans visualize in the universe and further explain images taken and studied by machines that measure the range of waves.
Microwaves are an essential kitchen gadget in households and are used on a daily basis. They are convenient as they are quick and effective for heating food in minutes. However, you may have noticed that at times the center of your food is still cold or that the outside of your food is hot but the inside is still frozen. This phenomenon can be explained by the physics of microwaves. Waves are produced in the microwaves that transfer heat to the food. Every wave has an amplitude and when the waves hit the x-axis, the amplitude of the wave is zero. Furthermore, if the amplitude of a specific waves hit zero in the center of the microwave then heat will not be transferred to the center where the food is placed. As a result, the physcis of microwaves demonstrates reasoning of why the center of the food will remain cold.
Throughout genetic history, there have been many concepts of heredity, both incorrect and correct. Scientists once believed that genetic information would travel from various parts of the body and then collect in the reproductive organs of the human. Another bizarre concept is the idea that a miniature organism live in sex cells throughout life and that all the traits are inherited from one parent when an offspring is born. Lastly, the idea that genes in the body mix together to form into the genetics material is false. The correct concepts include the germ-plasm theory where all cells have a complete set of genetic material. The cell theory of all cells arising from only cells is also proven to be true concept of heredity.
The universe is diverse and vast including planets, galaxies, stars, moons, and most evidently, the sun. The gravitational center of the universe resides in the sun, which is the center of the solar system. The gravitational forces from the sun execute the positions of planets in their orbits that orbit the sun. In addition, the sun constantly emits heat as the surface of plasma is 5,800 degrees kelvin. The heat comes from the sun’s core made up of mostly hydrogen that contains about a third of the sun’s mass. Hence, the temperature is even higher of about 15,000,000 degrees kelvin. Within the core, the hydrogen turns into helium, which then causes a fusion that results in heat escaping the surface of the sun. This heat escapes the sun as electromagnetic radiation that heats the earth’s surface when the waves hit. The radiation includes waves from infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light. The ultraviolet component can be correlated to the causes of sun damage and skin cancer.
The electromagnetic spectrum represents the range of frequencies of electromagnetic frequencies with the corresponding wavelengths. The order in increasing frequency is radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma ray. Radio waves capture waves by nearby radio stations to produce tunes through radio speakers. Microwaves are slightly higher in wave frequency and are emitted in kitchen microwaves for heating purposes. Waves that capture heat from either objects or animals can be seen with infrared. The visible waves are the only waves humans are able to see with the naked eye, which includes all the lights and colors produced. Ultraviolet waves are strictly emitted from the sun and can cause sunburns and tans with prolonged exposure. Lastly, x-rays and gamma rays are used in the medical field and for security purposes to take scans of the body or objects. X-rays consist of x-rays of teeth and scanning images of baggages at the airport. On the other hand, gamma rays are more powerful and hence more dangerous so they are highly regulated for precaution. Gamma rays are used to treat cancer for certain patients to kill cancerous cells in the body. The electromagnetic spectrum explains what humans visualize in the universe and further explain images taken and studied by machines that measure the range of waves.