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Introduction Methods

Submitted by cbbailey on Fri, 02/22/2019 - 00:44

The goals of this project was to be able to construct a methods section was to be able to create our own multipanel figure on our own, to be able to create a methods section to explain how the figure was created, and compare our create figure with another figure created by somebody else following our methods. By analysing the differences between the two figures created from the methods we will be able determine what parts of the methods are unclear and require more detail to create an accurate replica. The subjects that I chose for my figure were the trees covered in Ivy branches. I chose this interaction since because both were plant species there was very little chance for there to be a significant change in a two week period resulting in the same specimen not being able to be photographed for the replicate figure. Also even if there had been some sort of problem resulting in the specimen not being usable for the replicate, there were many other examples alongside the road that could also be used. When selecting my specimen, I wanted to make sure that it had a thick layer of Ivy that covered a large area of the tree to make sure it was very noticeable in the figure.

Methods - Introduction

Submitted by cbbailey on Thu, 02/21/2019 - 23:21

The goals of this project was to be able to construct a methods section was to be able to create our own multipanel figure on our own, be able to create a methods section to explain how the figure was created, and compare our create figure with another figure created by somebody else following our methods. By analysing the differences between the two figures we will be able to find what parts of our methods are unclear when replicating. The subjects of that I chose for my figure were the trees covered in Ivy branches along the West side of North Pleasant St. I chose this interaction since both were plant species there was very little chance for there to be a significant change resulting in the same example not being able to be photographed for the replicate figure. Also even if there had been some sort of problem resulting in the specimen not being there for the replicate, there were many other examples alongside the road that could also be used. When selecting my specimen, I wanted to make sure that it had a thick layer of Ivy that covered a large area of the tree to make sure it was very noticeable in the figure.

Cystic Fibrosis

Submitted by cbbailey on Thu, 02/21/2019 - 14:07

Cystic Fibrosis results from having two non functioning genes for the creation of the CFTP protein. This is autosomal recessive since as long as the body has one working copy of the CTPR gene it is able to preform its function normally. The cause of the symptoms of Cystic fibrosis is due to the buildup of thick layers of mucus which most notability leads to issues with lungs, but also affects the digestive system. This mucus buildup is due to inability for the cell to transport chloride ions to its surface. The CTPR protein forms a chloride Ion channel in the cell membrane allowing chloride Ions to leave the interior of the cell. These Ions attract water molecules to the surface of the cell which prevents the excess buildup of mucus on the surface of cells.

Observation and inference

Submitted by cbbailey on Fri, 02/15/2019 - 10:33

An observation is something that we can perceive using our 5 senses while and inference is the conclusions we drawn based upon observations. One personal example that highlights this difference can be see when cooking a burger. When checking to see if the burger is ready, serveral observations are made including the total amount of time it has been on the grill, what temperature the grill is currently at, How the burger currently looks and the texture of the burger. Using these observations I can make an inference about the approximate internal temperature of the burger and if it is ready to eat or not. This inference can be confirmed by using a thermometer to  record the exact temperature of the interior. Due to having repeated this process a great number of times however, I am confident in how accurate my inferences that the internal temperature of the burger will be correct based of these observations. 

Methods pt 2, Inkscape

Submitted by cbbailey on Fri, 02/15/2019 - 02:18

From my computer, I copied my 4 saved photos on to the inkscape program. Using the rectangle and box tool I made a dark green background approximatly 210mm wide by 300mm tall. I moved one of each of my 4 picture to a corner of the background and resized them to 70mm wide to 100mm tall. On the left corners I used both the pictures containing both species while i used the pictures of the indiviual species on the right corners. Using the create text objects function, I made 10 different text boxes. I moved 1 textbox directly under each of the two figures in the upper corners for the Picture Labels and 1 textbox directly above the two pictures in the lower corners for descriptions. Then under Picture label textboxs for the Upper corner picture I moved 1 more textbox under each for descriptions and above the two textboxes for descriptions for the pictures in the lower Corners I placed a textbox above each for Picture labels. Using a line creater and adding an arrowhead to the end of the line I created 6 arrows for labeling the pictures. using 3 arrows and one textboxes I labeled the Ivy in the 3 picture and using the remaining 3 arrows and last text box I labeled the trees in the 3 pictures.

Methods Pt 1, Taking picturesPP

Submitted by cbbailey on Thu, 02/14/2019 - 23:05

The inter species interaction that I decided to use for my project was between a tree and the Ivy branches climbing the trees. I started my search for pictures of this interaction by walking along the West side of North Pleasant St between Puffton village and UMass Amherst campus. While there were several examples of this interaction along this route, I wanted to look for a example that had a thick layer of Ivy branches going up at least 10 ft in the tree and a tree that was more than a foot in diameter. The example I picked for this was a tree in front of Puffton Village, approximately 100 ft from the first intersect For the individual species I took a photo of the Ivy branches from approximately 1 foot away from their side to try and isolate them in a picture. For the tree I searched around for another tree in the nearby area that did not have any Ivy branches climbing its trunk and used that for the picture. For the interaction pictures I took two pictures both from around 5 ft away from the tree. The first angled downward showing the base of the tree as well as the Ivy branches coming out of the ground and climbing the base of the tree. The second was angled slightly upward, showing the Ivy branches climbing higher up the tree wrapping around the branches of the tree. After taking these 4 photos I proceeded to return home and upload them to my computer to prepare for construction of my figure.

Methods Pt 1, Taking pictures

Submitted by cbbailey on Thu, 02/14/2019 - 15:08

The interspecies interaction that I decided to use for my project was between a tree and the Ivy branches climbing the trees. I started my search for pictures of this interaction by walking along the West side of North pleasant st between Puffton village and UMass Amherst campus. While there were several examples of this interaction along this route, I wanted to look for a example that had a thick layer of Ivy branches going a good way up on a larger tree. The example i choose from this was a tree right in front of Puffton village. For the individual species I took a photo of the Ivy branches from approximately 1 foot away from their side to try and isolate them in a picture. For the tree I searched around for another tree in the nearby area that did not have any IVy branches climbing its trunk. For the interaction pictures I took two pictures both from around 5 ft away from the tree. The first angled downward showing the base of the tree as well as the Ivy branches coming out of the ground and climbing the base of the tree. The second was angled slightly upward, showing the Ivy branches climbing higher up the tree wrapping around the branches of the tree. After taking these 4 photos I proceeded to return home and upload them to my computer to prepare for construction of my figure.

Bio Discussion on Gene editing and artificial selection in humans pt 2 Inability to control

Submitted by cbbailey on Wed, 02/13/2019 - 14:47

The second reason I believe that we shouldnt try to restrict this type of artificial selection is that we have very little way of stopping this artificial selection from occuring. In our modern day society, artificial selection already takes place at some levels, two examples being the mention of pregnacies being terminated due to certain genetic diseases being ddiscovered about the child as well as In the BBC article a couple specifically selected genes from a family with a long history of genetic deafness in order to have a deaf child.Even without the convervesial methods of gene editting, artificaill selection still occurs in our modern day world quite frequently, trying to limit the technology will only result in it being developed in different reguons of the world were it is accepted resulting in uus having less information and regulatory power over it to prevent it from being misused. Regardless if we allow this to procced, gene editing technology will continue to develop elsewhere and wilil eventually make its way back into society, potentially in an underground market which would allows us almost no power to enforces safty standards and safe practices. 

Bio Discussion on Gene editing and artificial selection in humans pt 1 Benefits

Submitted by cbbailey on Wed, 02/13/2019 - 01:37

For the issue of what kinds of artificial selection on humanity should b e tolerated , I beleive that we wshould tolerate almost all forms, excluding purposly harmful selection. First reason I beleive we should tolerate this is due to the immense benfits of allowing such selection. IN fighting disease , the immune system can be genetically modifided to be able to counteract specific problems. An example of this was shown in the Genetic engineering video in  which they talk about China testing genetically modifying immune system cell to be able to deal with lung cancer. In addition to these diseases, gene editting can also be used to cure genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and HIV. In the New York times article, it talks about how sickle cell patients live in constant pain with treatments of monthly blood transfusions to help relieve symptoms but after an experimentaly gene therapy test some patients sympoms disappeared. The last benifit of this selection is that gene editting technology has recently seen a huge decrease in costs and ease in use from the introduction of CRISPR. As our knowldge and technology on this subject will only increase, gene edtting could turn into an affordable method to provide care t o a large number of illnesses.

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