Phenformin is a potent biguanic OXPHOS complex I inhibitor that has shown greater than 30% tumor growth inhibition in 5 out of 12 pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft models (Rajeshkumar et al. 2017). It is more potent than metformin, another OXPHOS complex I inhibitor, which only suppressed tumor growth in 3 out of 12 pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft models even at a five-fold higher dose (Rajeshkumar et al. 2017). In contrast to metformin, phenformin does not require a cellular transporter (Iversen et al. 2017) and has been shown to resensitize previously therapy-resistant cancer cells (Matassa et al. 2016). Due to its high efficacy, the researchers plan to incorporate phenformin into their treatment in conjunction with a Krebs cycle inhibitor, devimistat (CPI-613).
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is another highly conserved pathway involved in cell growth and proliferation, as well as PaCSC self-renewal. In the canonical pathway, Wnt proteins that are modified by porcupine to become lipid-bound bind to frizzled receptor complexes and the co-receptor LRP5/6. The signal is then passed downstream via disheveled, which in its active state inhibits phosphorylation of β-catenin, allowing it to accumulate in the cytoplasm. β-catenin is then translocated to the nucleus, where it forms a transcriptional complex and acts on target genes. RNF43 and ZNRF3 were recently identified as Wnt target genes and negative feedback regulators that are inactivated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Zhan et al. 2017). Two regions of the pathway the researchers intend to target include upstream, such as porcupine and frizzled, and downstream between the interaction of β-catenin and its target genes. Small molecule inhibitors of porcupine such as LGK974 and ETC-159 have been highly effective in pancreatic cancer to block signaling (Novartis Pharmaceuticals 2018). The monoclonal antibody Vantictumab blocks frizzled receptors and has shown beneficial effects in treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma when combined with paclitaxel or gemcitabine (Messersmith et al. 2016). Additionally, the small molecule inhibitor PRI-724 has shown promising effects in blocking the interaction between β-catenin and its target genes (PRISM Pharma 2017). The researchers would like to include all of these in their treatment of halting the Wnt pathway, thereby stopping PaCSC self-renewal.
Groups will compare the numbr of volunteer species present for their host species in the individual and group potted environments. Information about volunteer species diversity for each host in both potted environments will be recorded in a Google spreadsheet. This information will be used to do a side by side comparison of the diveristy of volunteer plants in individual and group potted environments for all the host plants included. From the class data, patterns and trends will be recorded to make inferences about the observed data. The area that each volunteer species covers in an individual and group pot will be recorded. The ratio of the amount of area covered by a volunteer species will be calculated by dividing the total area covered by a volnteer species by the total area of the pot. For all group pots, the area will be 16 m2.
The research conducted will be beneficial for those who work in greenhouses or are involved in botany. The findings will tell us about the diversity of volunteer species of individually and group potted plants. There are present studies looking into the effects of specidic volunteer plants on host , but they mainly focus on crops. The research that this proposal takes into account involves the growth of volunteer plants in two different potted environments. The findings from this research will present data that may be useful for greenhouses and botanists when deciding which potted environments may be favorable for plant growth. The findings on total area for each volunteer species covers will also be beneficial for greenhouses and botanists to determine the invasiveness of volunteer species in individually potted and group potted evironments. This research will lay the groundwork for further research that could be done to test the invasiveness of the same species of volunteer plants in individual and group potted environments.
At the end of the citric acid cycle, the reduced electron carriers contain the majority of the energy from glucose. Through oxidative phosphorylation, energy released by redox reactions is coupled indirectly to ATP synthesis. There are two coupled processes. First, in the electron transport chain, redox reactions transfer electrons from the reduced electron carriers to oxygen, and energy released is used to form a proton gradient by pumping protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space. Four multienzyme complexes catalyze the redox reactions. Complex I receives electrons from NADH and pumps protons while complex II receives electrons from FADH2 but does not pump protons. Coenzyme Q then receives electrons from complex I and II and donates electrons to complex III. Complex III then donates electrons to cytochrome C, a water-soluble protein. Complex IV then receives electrons from cytochrome C. Throughout this process, electrons are moving from molecules with low affinity to those with high affinity. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor at the end of the transport chain. The energy stored in the proton gradient is then released as protons flow back to the matrix through the ATP synthase proton channel. The flow from higher to lower concentrations releases energy. ATP synthase uses the energy released to form ATP.
The significance of this study is to show what effect the different burial depths do to germination of the Silybum marianum. The experiment that we are used to base our project on used an entirely different kind of plant from a different region. Also this paper is from 1999 so the data could be outdated. So, by doing this experiment now with a plant from New England we can see if the results are similar to the plants from the great lakes. That way we can compare these plants to see if they react the same to the different depths of germination. We can learn more about the fauna of New England and also learn more about this family of plants. Another important thing would be to find out if the change of the Earth Since 1999 has changed the results of this experiment at all.
The significance of this study is to show what effect the different burial depths do to germination of the Silybum marianum. The experiment that we are using to base our project on used an entirely different kind of plant from a different region. Also this paper is from 1999 so the data could be outdated. So, by doing this experiment now with a plant from New England we can see if the results are similar to the plants from the great lakes. That way we can compare these plants to see if they react the same to the different depths of germination. This way we can learn more about the fauna of New England and also learn more about this family of plants. We can also find out if the change of the Earth Since 1999 has changed the results of this experiment at all.
After collecting data of the observed behaviors and placing them into behavioral categories, we concluded the categories to be normal, innate behaviors of young foals. Each behavioral category is seen multiple times in the total 48 minutes and 55 seconds of footage and a total number of 65 individuals behaviors were documented. The playful behavioral category had 11 specific behaviors performed by the foals that were described and documented (Table 1). The aggression category shows 9 different behaviors of the foals (Table 2). The feeding behavioral category had a total of 10 unique foal behaviors (Table 3). Locomotion behavioral category of the foals had a total of 7 behaviors (Table 4). The grooming behavioral category had the most classified behaviors with a total of 15 (Table 5). The affection behavioral category had the least amount with 3 behaviors (Table 6). The behavioral category of observation had a total of 8 behaviors listed (Table 7). By weeding through the repetitions and similarities of the collected behaviors, we were able to formulate a well organized set of tables and learn about the constant signals that Morgan horses use to communicate.
The first part of the Ethogram project had us closely analyze the everyday behaviors of a small group of female Equus caballus (Morgan horses). After observing the horses for a total of 48 minutes and 55 seconds, we recorded the many different behaviors of two female foals (aged 2 to 4 months) with two mares at the Umass Amherst Equestrian Center in Amherst Massachusetts during late summer. To record these behaviors, we captured the still images of these behaviors and recorded the time that the behavior took place in the results tables. Seven individual behavioral categories were derived. The individual behaviors were described in greater detail and, based on what the behavior fell under, put into behavioral category tables.