As said before, the goal or the mission of this project was to create a figure that illustrated the interaction between the koi fish and plants in Dunfree conservatory. The replicated figure completed that task but with small differences in format. In my methods I realized that I did not specify some key components that could have made both figures more identical. I did not specify how many koi fish were to be present in the frame when taking the photo, if it was supposed to be zoomed in or out, or the color of the koi. As for making the figure itself, I did state the scale of the border, but I did not indicate what scale and where to find it on the page. For the arrow, I stated I used “an arrow with a feathered end” and while at the time I thought that was specific, it really was not looking at the style of the other arrows. Overall, both figures used the arrows to point out plant and fish interacting.
Candida albicans are fungal pathogens that infect humans. It grows in various forms either in a yeast form or a pseudohypae form. The change in conformation of Candida albicans is based on what cell type it originally is. The bacteria can be unicellular, or multicellular to determine the fate of shape. Candida albicans are harmless in general, but can lead to diseases when they over grow. Candida albicans are found mostly in patients with HIV, transplant recipients, and chemotherapy patients. The morphology of Candida albicans depend on the environment they are placed. Temperature, pH, salt concentration are all factors that potentially influence the appearance of Candida albicans. Through a method called transition, Candida albicans change their morphology. Unlike Eukaryotic cell, where gene regulation is the key factor of determinate cell, bacterial cells have a high plasticity to the environment they are in.
Food science is an interesting field that studies the molecular activity that is occurring at our food, and why our perceptions towards certain foods exists. This includes why we enjoy french fries so much, why the crunch of an apple tastes better than an apple without a crunch, or why we love it when a dorito is the perfect orange. Fast food and certain snack companies actually pay a significant amount in order to have scientists test their food products, and compare it to scientific theory in order to improve consumer revenue. For example, the reason why doritos are always crunchy is not an accident, neither is the reason why a bag of lays is always almost half full of air. When a person opens a bag of Lays chips, the air that gets escaped keeps the chips fresh, but also has a specific synthetically created “potato” smell that is supposed to make the eater a little more hungry and crave the chips a little more. That puff of air that hits your face is almost similar to pavlov’s experiment, where the end goal is to make the consumer used to that puff of air hitting their face whenever they crave a snack, and that will induce a behavior of grabbing (specifically) a bag of Lays.
Energy metabolism in animals is typically calculated in three different ways. The first way is to quantify the difference between the energy value of all food consumed and energy value from waste. This assumes no change in the physiology of the animal and is typically only accurate across long periods of time. The second method for calculating metabolism is to quantify the total heat production of animals compared to the food that they consume. This method is considered very accurate but is very complex and difficult to calculate. The last method is the most commonly practiced method in the field. This third method measures the oxygen levels in oxidation processes and assumes no anaerobic metabolism. This method is generally considered to be very accurate and the source of energy (fat, protein, or carbohydrates) is not of importance. It also assumes that the amount of heat generated per liter of oxygen during metabolism is consistent.
It’s interesting to realize the amount of complexity that exists when learning music theory formally. When a child learns how to play a note on the piano or on any instrument, we are taught to hear that specific sound and to associate it with a note name (such as F). Yet when learning music theory as a college student, the idea behind “what is a note” and “what is a sharp”, are all asked. The importance behind such ideas are important to be formally addressed, but is it entirely necessary in order to teach music theory? At the end of the day, a child who has been playing the piano for half a year, can most likely tell an introductory music theory student what simple concepts are, like what a half note is, or what a sharp is. The way they express it might not be formal or coherent, but they still understand what it is. It’s ridiculous to think that an understanding of music theory is necessary in order to make or create music. As an example, those who have been considered “musical legends” such as John Lennon, did not know how to read music until he was well into his career as a well-established musician.
The size of the letters in the upper left hand text boxes vary when looking at Figure 1 to Figure 2. The same sans-serif font appears to be used; yet, in the original figure, the letter size is larger than in the replicated figure. There is an obvious difference in photos ‘b’ as, in the original figure, the quarter is being held up to the finger. In the replicated figure, the quarter is placed on a flat surface with the finger placed to the left of it. Another difference is the actual images taken of the leaf. In Figure 1, in photos ‘c’ and ‘d,’ the leaf is not as closely seen as in Figure 2.
The two scientific multi-panel figures above resulted in the following observational differences. The replicate figure upon initial observation is significantly darker in color than the original figure. Although they are both contain a yellow background, the replicate figure has a dark yellow, orange color, while the original has a light, yellow-beige color background. Both figures contain three images, the first taken of the identical English Ivy strand, the second of the Sweet Olive tree, and the third of both species together taken from a further distance. All three photos of the replicate figure capture the same angles of the original figure almost exactly. However the replicate photos were taken during the evening, as the sun is setting at a different angle as in the original photos. The arrows used on the third photo from the replicate photo are both horizontal, however facing the left direction, as opposed to in the original photo the blue arrow is pointing in the right direction and the red arrow is pointing in the left direction. The text above the actual photos is identical in both figures. The photos in the replicate figure appear to be smaller in size in proportion to the figure than in the original figure.
The methods section of a scientific article allows researchers to determine the validity of a study based off of its replicability. When developing an experiment, factors that may interfere with replicability should be controlled in an effort to minimize discrepancies between iterations. The methods project attempts to practice and develop these skills, as well as distinguish between observation and inference through the examination and replication of a multi-panel scientific figure illustrating an interspecific interaction.
In this project, the interspecific interaction between mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) will be examined. On campus, mallard ducks and Canada geese are commonly found by the pond during the winter months. Due to this proximity, both species often interact with each other in multiple ways. The most commonly observed interaction between these two species is the sharing of their space. The two species are easily photographable together since they are typically not shy, in the same general region, and quite prevalent. Therefore, images taken of them in this environment would be feasibly replicable.
Elements of this process to account for replicability include photography, location, weather, time, and levels of specificity. The location of the ducks and geese are on the pond in the center of campus, making them easy to find. Due to its vast size and the mobility of these two organisms, a camera with zooming capabilities should be chosen to document them individually as well as their interaction. The ducks and geese are typically observed near the end of the pond closest to the Fine Arts Center, either in the water or along the shore. It may take a while for the ducks and geese to trust a human enough to get close for pictures. If it is raining or snowing outside, the ducks and geese are away from the pond, so photography should be performed on a day with fairer weather. The geese, ducks, and their interaction should be photographed with non-specific surroundings to maximize the chances of successful replication. Out of these three images, the interaction of the two species especially should not be particular about the exact location on the pond due to the mobility of these organisms and the size of their environment.
The researchers would like to assess dosage efficiency through repeated titrations for a standard therapeutic threshold of 50% or greater based on liposomal binding and delivery of its interior components. If a certain percentage of tumor cells are sensitized with each dose, it will allow the researchers to further assess binding efficiencies of the liposome to its targets as well as therapeutic efficiency. Due to its phospholipid bilayer and biochemical interactions with water that hold its structure together, this liposome will be delivered intravenously to the patient suspended in an aqueous or hydrophilic solution. Hydrophilic drugs (ONC201, ABT263, and Cbl) will be located in the interior, while antibodies for pancreatic adenocarcinoma-specific antigens (CA 19-9, MUC-1, and NT5E) will be dispersed among the exterior.