Overall, I enjoyed the methods project. Before beginning the project, I thought it may be too much work, and I was a little annoyed about how much out-of-class time was required. After beginning,however, I started to see just how valuable the project actually was. I also was surprised at how smoothely it went, and I dd not have to put extreme aounts of effort into it, especially following the methods of my peer. I found it useful to see someone else's writing and use it to format methods sections in other classes. Overall, this project taught me how to write clearly and concisely, how to put just the right amount of detail into something, and how to put myself into anoher scientist's shoes. I imagined being a person outside of this class, and how my thought process would be if I was seeing these methods for the first time. It also helped me remove myself from the writing, even when using "I" statements, when we went over differences vs. assumptions and writing without judgement. I used what I learned from the methods project to help me write my midterm report for another lab, and I am sure it will help me again in the future.
The goal of our project was to observe the effects that manipulating the seed coat had on germination rates in soybean species. The seed coat is important for protecting the seed, but we were wondering if it is at all necessary for initial growth to occur. To test this, we had some serve as a control group, some where the coat was nicked with a needle, and some where the seed coat was completely removed. Over the course of 3.5 days, the seeds stayed in petri dishes with wet paper towels, and we periodically checked all the seeds and recorded how many of each treatment had germinated. Because another group completed this project with us, we focused mostly on how the control group's germination rates differed from that of the nicked group. Our results showed a trend in faster germination among the nicked seed coats, but after statistical analysis we cannot conclude that nicking of the seed coat leads to faster germination. We must say that the differences observed most likely occurred by chance.
Our project’s goal was to observe the effects that manipulating the seed coat had on germination rates. The seed coat is important for protecting the seed in the ground, but we were wondering if it is completely necessary. To test this, we used soybean species and had some serve as a control group, some where the coat was nicked with a needle, and some where the seed coat was completely removed. Over the course of 3.5 days, the seeds were placed in petri dishes with wet paper towels, and we periodically checked all the seeds and recorded how many of each treatment had germinated. Because another group completed this project with us, we focused mostly on the control group vs. the nicked group. Our results show a trend in faster germination among the nicked seed coats, but after statistical analysis we cannot conclude that nicking of the seed coat leads to faster germination, and we must say that the differences observed most likely occurred by chance.
Th cell cycle is the series of events that occurs within the cell that let it grow and divide. G1 is the first phase, where the cell is growing and building up nutrients to prepare for DNA replication. This occurs next, in the S phase. After DNA replication is G2 phase, which is another growth hase. The cell is growing to help it be big and full of enough nutrients for when it divides. Cell division occurs during M phase after G2, and this includes, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. After cytokinesis occurs, the cell cycle is finished. Throughout the cell cycle, there are certain checkpoints to make sure everything is a-ok before proceeding. These checkpoints include checking for DNA damage, incomplete DNA replication, and inproper spindle attachment.
BORIS is a program used in the life sciences for coding and observation of videos. In my lab, we use BORIS to code for teh behavior of slugs in obervational experiments. I am currently using this program to score the behavior of baby slugs after exposing them to conpressin for an hour. I record them for an hour in untreated conditions, and then for an hour in water with a 10^-6 concentration of conopressin. The behaviors I am scoring for are explore, turn (either right or left and 180/360 degrees), top-surf, sie-surf, escape, contract, and rear. Top-surfing is described as floating, where only the foot is attached to the top surface of the water. Side-surfin is described as the foot being attached to the wall of the well. Rearing is the lifting of only the head and looking up while the rest of the body stays attached to the floor.
To determine whether different habitats have different sized trees, we measured the diameter at breast height (dbh) of adult trees in three sites at the Holyoke Range in Amherst Massachusetts. The sites included a north slope, south slope and flat area at an area called “The Notch” on the Holyoke range. The dbh of these trees was used to find basal area of the adult trees present in eight replicates. After analyzing the basal area of adult trees it was determined that the average basal area was not that different between the slopes. The species Quercus rubra/velutina was also specifically looked at because of its high density at each site compared to other species. It was predicted that the basal area of this species would be larger on the flat than on either north or south slopes. It was actually found that the north slope have higher average basal area than either the flat of the south slopes. Ultimately, the results did not support the hypothesis that steeper slopes have small trees due to higher mortality rates of of larger trees.
One main feature of music is that it can elicit a host of different emotions. Autobiographical memory is the long term memory that allows recovery of experiences and knowledge. One autobiographical component is emotion, which helps to remember certain memories than when emotions are not involved. Thus this current study tried to find a link between emotions and music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD. They asked the subjects to choose their favorite music as they hypothesized that favorite music hold high emotion valence. When asked about their favorite music, some were unable to name them and so their family helped out by naming it. After going through the conditions, they were asked for any details they remembered. They were rated using TEMPau that measures autobiographical memory – zero for absence of memory and ranging up to a four for feelings, emotions, thoughts and perceptions. The emotions were categorized as positive or negative and rated accordingly. The results showed amazing results for the chosen condition: the controls scored an average of 4 as expected, but the AD patients had scored 3.33. Furthermore, they produced more positive words than negative, and hence the autobiographical memory relevant to it.
They used ELISA kits (used to detect and quantify proteins) to measure the beta-amyloid and tau, along with the TH. After processing, they injected the sample into the HPLC for analysis. T4, T3, rT3 were detected in the HPLC. For the most part, there was no difference observed between AD and control groups. However, there was a lower correlation coefficient between CSF T3 and blood T3in AD patients as opposed to control. CSF TH and CSF beta-amyloid had no significant correlation. The absence of correlations showed the complex distribution of TH between blood and the CSF. . The same could be said for CSF T4, T3or rT3between patients and controls. This was probably due to the fact that it was difficult to find controls who would want to opt for a lumbar puncture. They found significant negative correlations between rT3, or rT3/T3ratio and MMSE only in AD patients.
Theories for invasive species and why they occur have been hypothesized in recent ecological research. These hypotheses cover a variety of thoughts and multiple may be true concurrently: the enemy escape hypothesis, EICA hypothesis, EDCA hypothesis, Novel Weapons hypothesis, Missed Mutualism hypothesis, Invasional Meltdown hypothesis, Biotic Resistance hypothesis, unusual refuge hypothesis, global competition hypothesis, introduction pressure hypothesis, unintentional screening hypothesis, intentional screening hypothesis and the related idea of biological control corollary. The enemy escape hypothesis states that species are less subject to specialized predators and pathogens where they are introduced than where they are native. This is due to the lack of selection for a specialized predator where the organism was not existing. The EICA (Evolution of Increased Competetive Ability) hypothesis is where plants evolve to grow faster than other plants. EDCA (Evolution of Decreased Competitve Ability) hypothesis is where plants evolve to reproduce faster than other plants, but have no competetive ability. Novel Weapons Hypothesis explains how native species have not evolved to be selected for defenses against introduced species. This means that the introduced species defense mechanisms are more likely to target and harm the native species. Missed Mutualism Hypothesis states that the invading species will be less likely to take over it if is introduced without its native mutualists because it no longer benefits from the relationship with them. The opposite is true of the Invasional Meltdown Hypothesis which discusses the idea that if the mutualists of an introduced species are brought with it, the species will be highly invasive and almost always win out. The Biotic Resistance Hypothesis states that introduced species are less likely to be invasive because the presence of native predators, pathogens, and competitors will limit their spread. The idea that specific location yield species that are highly specialized to live there and only there comes into play in the Unusual Refuge Hypothesis, where it is thought that lack of adaption to local stresses limits invasive-ness, then locations with unusual stresses are less invasible. Global Competition Hypothesis simply states that it is more likely that some species elsewhere is a better competitor in a single niche than the local species because of the opportunity for better plants to be located and adapted to any other location on the planet. The introduction pressure hypothesis believes that the greater the number of individuals of a species are introduced and the more times that species arrives, the more likely it is to take hold in the introduced environment. That is because increasing the number of individuals reduces the limitations on the genetic pool of the migrated population and decreases the affects of genetic drift, and interbreeding between previously separate species populations increases fitness. Intentional screening causes certain traits that are more likely to yield an invasive species to be artifically selected for when people pick plants to bring. The unintentional invasion hypothesis deals with the traits that a plant species is likely to have to have survived travel and dispersal to become invasive. Plants that cling to boats and crops and survive travel are likely to be more drought tolerant, more fecund, parasitic to plants that were intentionally brought, and from places disturbed by people and therefore disturbance tolerant. The biological control corollary is the idea that a specialized predator from the native location of an invasive plant can be brought to reduce the invasive-ness of that plant.
Behavioral experiments have shown that the principal and secondary eyes work together to precisely target moving stimuli. For example, Dr. Beth Jakob and colleagues investigated how the secondary anterior lateral eyes direct the principal eyes of Phidippus audaxwhen tracking moving objects. Phidippus audaxwere tethered in front of an eye-tracker that recorded the movement of the principal eye retinas. When spiders with their anterior lateral eyes unmasked were shown a moving disk, the principal eye retinas moved close together and were able to track it. Meanwhile, masked spiders were unable to track moving disks with their principal eye retinas. This indicated that principal eyes can precisely target moving stimuli only with the guidance of the secondary eyes (Jakob et al., 2018). Furthermore, Cupiennius salei, a wandering spider from the family Ctenidae, has also been shown to have closely cooperating principal and secondary eyes. Cupiennius saleihave moveable principal eyes that are controlled by four muscles (Kaps, 1996) (Land, 1969). Masking the Cupiennius saleisecondary eyes reduced their principal eye movement (Neuhofer et al., 2009).