When the sun heats up several water bodies, water vapor starts rising up due to its low density. As it reaches a higher altitude, the temperature starts to cool down. This drop results in the vapor to condense and form clouds above. A more simplified version can be shown using a cloud in a bottle. Adding a small amount of water (or to make the process much faster - ethanol) in a 1 litre plastic bottle would represent the process in a closed system. Using a rubber cork, the nozzle of an air pump can be secured in place. Once everything is set, air is pumped into the bottle with water/ethanol. As more air is pumped into the bottle, the pressure inside starts increasing. Since PV=nRT, the temperature also starts to rise inside. This equates to the water rising once the sun heats up the seas, lakes, rivers etc. As soon as the cork is removed, there is a pop sound followed by a sudden appearance of fog, which represents the cloud. When the cork is removed, there is a sudden drop in pressure, followd by the drastic drop in temperature that rapidly cools down the heated air inside, thereby causing condensation.
A chromosomal translocation occurs when a segment of one chromosome becomes attached to another. In reciprocal translocations two non-homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material, and they arise from two different mechanisms: chromosomal breakage/DNA repair and abnormal crossovers. Reciprocal translocations lead to a rearrangement of the genetic material, not a change in the total amount thus, they are called balanced translocations. Reciprocal translocations, like inversions, are usually without phenotypic consequences. In a few cases, they can result in position effects and break point effects. In simple translocations the transfer of genetic material occurs in only one direction, these are also called unbalanced translocations. Unbalanced translocations are associated with phenotypic or even lethality, for example: Familial Down's Syndrome. In this condition, the majority of chromosome 21 is attached to chromosome 14. The affected individual would have three copies of genes found on a large segment of chromosome 21, therefore, they exhibit the characteristics of Down's Syndrome. Familial Down's Syndrome is the most common type of chromosomal rearrangement in humans and occurs Approximately 1 in 900 births.
The third specific aim is to determine the reliability of HOXC genes as an indicator of the phylogeny. While molecular phylogenetic determination is a reliable way of determining the phylogeny of organisms, Because there are only 4 possible nucleotides, there is a chance that the phylogenetic tree may be incorrect. To determine whether the tree is accurate, the bootstrap value of the tree will be calculated. By comparing the tree, the overall objective of determining the use of HOXC as an indicator of phylogeny can be achieved.
This industry has been alive for as long as our whole family lineage has been alive for. The Babylonians worshiped a wine goddess as early as 2700 B.C. In Greece, one of the first alcoholic beverages to gain popularity was “mead”, a fermented drink made from honey and water. Greek literature is full of warnings against excessive drinking. This shows us that alcohol has been around for a very long time, but when did it become an epidemic? Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with addictive properties, just like nicotine. As above, we can see that it has been widely used in many cultures for centuries. This substance not only has detrimental physical health effects to the individual, but it has psychological effects, and can harm other people such as family members, co-workers and strangers. In fact, alcohol is now the 3rd leading preventable cause of death in the United States, with an estimated 88,000 people dying from alcohol-related causes every year.
HOX genes are a group of highly conserved genes in organisms that dictates their body plans. To determine whether HOX genes are a reliable indicator of phylogeny, we look to determine the reliability of the phylogenetic trees made using the HOXC gene and comparing it to the existing phylogenetic tree. The analysis would highlight differences in HOXC gene expression, which is gathered using MEGA software. The conclusion to this study will allow for the determination of phylogeny in a new species using the sequence of the HOXC gene.
It is clear that this process is very complex and multi-staged; non-coding RNAs are involved in it. To a complete understanding of all these processes in different animals, science is still very far away. When the basic mechanisms of gene regulation during early ontogenesis are deciphered, biologists will be able to address fundamental questions. A modified phylogenetic tree allows us to map where organisms may have originated based on HOX similarities. A heat graph showing HOX gene interactions will let us see the expression of unique HOX genes. By doing this analysis, we can know more about HOXC genes and how they manifest in the animal kingdom. Such techniques with animals can lead to answering important questions on the evolution of various animals.
The overall objective of our proposal was to identify subjects that contain a highly conserved gene that can be characterized by the amount of expression. One specific aim the proposal had was to identify highly conserved genes that are present in the Animalia kingdom. In the development of animals, there is a period of embryonic similarity, where both the appearance of the embryos and the expression of their genes are conserved. The existence of this period is associated with the appearance in the evolution of stable building plans. In HOXC genes, the genes themselves are located in a specific order on chromosomes. Therefore, a consistent pattern of activation of HOXC genes is necessary in order for the body to form correctly. However, the mechanism and regulation of the HOXC genes themselves remain unclear.
In this project, we will be making nine different phylogenetic trees based on the nine HOXC genes. Each phylogenetic tree will retrieve a human HOXC reference sequence from the NCBI gene database and then search again on the NCBI gene database for the rest of the HOXC genes that are available for all species that lie in the Animalia kingdom. Of the available sequences, we will use MEGA software to align the sequence. The sequence is then saved. Using MEGA’s software, a phylogenetic tree will be created. The tree is then exported as a NEXUS file and uploaded into the iTOL website to create a phylogenetic tree that may be manipulated. The phylogenetic tree will then be evaluated for their reliability by obtaining the tree’s bootstrap value from MEGA.
HOX genes, specifically HOXC genes and their homeodomains, are vital to the development of vertebrates. The HOXC genes function in cell differentiation, proliferation, and epithelial tissue development, with associations to lymphoma and club foot in humans (Gene Cards, 2019). Some studies have also indicated that the genes may be important in vertebrae (Carrasco, 1994) and other bone development such as craniofacial morphogenesis (Hirata, 2016). Mutations in these genes can often result in a homeotic mutation, where certain body parts end up growing where it is not usually grown, or a severe malformation of certain limbs and organs (Alvarado, 2016).
HOX genes specify the regions in an anterior-posterior axis of an animal. Because the organization of the body depends on these genes, a mutation in them often results in misformation of limbs and other body parts. Because HOX genes are highly conserved across species, making it useful in determining the phylogeny of species. However, the determination of the HOXC gene as an indicator of phylogeny across all vertebrae species is something that has not been examined as of now.