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Juice from concentrate

Submitted by mpetracchi on Fri, 09/20/2019 - 11:24

I recently looked at an orange juice bottle and noticed a small label that said, 'From concentrate with vitamin C', which made me wonder how is this different than juice straight from a fruit. Upon researching the topic I realized there wasn't much of a difference and the reason why juices are from concentrate or not is due to transport. Both processes begin with raw fruit sent through a juicing machine to remove the skins or peels. Now there are two options. First, the juice could be immediately pasteurized, a process where the juice is heated to kill any pathogens, and eventually packaged and shipped. This process is very simple, however, the juice may not be able to last very long in transit. This is where option 2 becomes beneficial. The juice can be extracted, then run through a second extractor to remove the water content. With no water present in the concentrate, the volume is much smaller and can now be transported to a second location, ideally closer to an intended market. In that second location, the concentrate has water re-added. Now it can be pasteurized and packaged for sale. Unless the seller intentionally adds more to the juice such as added sugar or vitamin C the juices are identical and neither is necessarily better or worse for you. 


Submitted by mpetracchi on Thu, 09/19/2019 - 20:34

Once all three of the images have been gathered I opened google drive, clicked on the new media icon, and hovered over the tab labeled more. A second menu popped out to the side including google drawings. I opened the program which has an empty workspace with a checkerboard pattern in the center workspace. From here I imported the three images from before into the workspace by dragging and dropping them in. I oriented them left to right as follows: Close up shot, distant shot, map. The workspace itself is 10 inches across and the figure should fit that space exactly. I made the close-up image 2.7 inches wide by 3.61 inches tall, the distant shot 2.7 inches wide by 3.61 inches tall and the map is 4.6 inches wide by 3.61 inches tall. Overlaying the map image, I circled the approximate area where the leaf was found by clicking the 'shape' icon and adding a circle. I selected the border color icon and changed the color to red. I selected the arrow icon and added an arrow pointing towards the circle starting from the bottom right of the map. The figure looks as follows. Three images left to right including a close-up shot, distant shot, and map and a red circle identifying where the plant was found with an arrow pointing towards it. Export to a .png file by clicking ‘file’, then ‘download’, and select ‘PNG image (.png)’.

Methods Control

Submitted by mpetracchi on Thu, 09/19/2019 - 18:24

In order to get the best results possible I will attempt to control as much as I can in my descriptions. One important thing I can control is guiding the person to the proper plant and taking a picture from the proper angle. I will do this by describing the path they need to take from a set landmark to the intended location. Once there, I plan to instruct the person on what angles to use when taking pictures, especially for the ‘distant shot’. This one will require more detail because it can be very easy to step back and take a photograph of the plant with a completely different background. Likely, my instructions will include some directionality and some description of what to fit in the background. Another basic thing I can control is when to take the photograph. It is important they do so at a similar time of day to match the shadows. A third factor I can control is how the final figure will be constructed. Careful instructions will be written for each step, beginning from the software used to the final touches.

Methods Draft

Submitted by mpetracchi on Wed, 09/18/2019 - 22:42

  Once all three of the images have been gathered open google drive. Click on the new media icon and hover over the tab labeled more. A second menu should pop out to the side. Select google drawings. A file should open revealing an empty workspace with a checkerboard pattern. From here import the three images from before into the workspace. They will be oriented left to right as follows: Close up shot, distant shot, map. The workspace itself is 10 inches across and the images should fit that space exactly. The close-up image is 2.7 inches wide and 3.61 inches tall. The distant shot is also 2.7 inches wide and 3.61 inches tall. The map is 4.6 inches wide and 3.61 inches tall. On top of the map, circle the area where the leaf was found by clicking the 'shape' icon and adding a circle. Select the border color icon next to the fill icon and change the color to red.  Approximate where the plant may be found in this area. Select the arrow icon and add an arrow pointing towards the circle starting from the bottom right. The figure should look as follows. Three images left to right including a close-up shot, distant shot, and map. The map should have a red circle identifying where the plant was found with an arrow pointing towards this circle. The figure image is now complete. Export to a .png file by clicking ‘file’, then ‘download’, and select ‘PNG image (.png)’.


Submitted by mpetracchi on Wed, 09/18/2019 - 21:11

        The following question was recently posted as a writing prompt in my anthropology disscussion section, If you could go back in time and prevent early humans from developing agriculture would you? I would not. To preface my argument, there is much evidence that points to early farming communities having very poor health and lower lifespans, compared to their hunter-gatherer counterparts. These seem like terrible things, so why not get rid of it? Even though agriculture may have harmed human health in the short term, we now have the available technology to learn from our mistakes and improve. On such example is golden rice. Many recent reports of global malnutrition have concluded that the diets of many poor countries consist of primary rice, in some cases up to 100% of a diet. Unfortunately, even though these people receive calories, they don't get other important nutrients. One of which being pro-vitamin A.  Without it people can lose their eyesight, worsen their health and eventually die. A swiss professor and a team were able to insert the gene for Beta-carotene production into grains of rice which codes for pro-vitamin A. This rice could save millions of people and the same could be done for other nutrients. Also one of the important factors that should be highlighted is that even the best hunter-gatherers had an average lifespan of 26 years while humans today live on average to 79 years with agriculture and everything it has allowed us to do. This includes cities, medicine, and engineering. I stick to my answer, however, I feel the question is very subjective because for some people the hunter-gatherer lifestyle may seem more appealing and would choose to prevent agriculture. This is to say that neither answer is right or wrong. Instead it's an opinion on a hypothetical situation.

Bio Lab - D. Melanogaster

Submitted by mpetracchi on Mon, 09/16/2019 - 18:38

Bodily processes in animals are controlled hormones secreted by the endocrine system, which reach target areas and relay ‘messages’ through either the hemolymph in invertebrates or blood in vertebrates. Some of these processes include the regulation of metabolism, growth, and fertility(). Understanding these processes and how altering them changes outcomes in model organisms is useful to vicariously understand of. Testing on humans can have many ethical problems, so model organisms are therefore used in laboratories instead of humans. Drosophila Melanogaster, also commonly known as a fruit D. Melanogaster, is one such model organism. They are versatile so a variety of testing can be done on them, they are inexpensive to culture, they have short lifespans, they produce many external offspring at one time, and their life cycles have been extensively mapped. The hormone which will be tested on D. Melanogaster in this lab is a juvenile hormone. It has been found to be present in D. Melanogaster mainly during the larval and pupal stage and the effects it has are what our group aims to determine.

D. Melanogaster begins their life cycles as eggs laid by adult females on fruits and are ovoid in shape. Every stage is regulated with hormones that regulate every process that occurs. Once the egg stage is nearing completion it begins the larval stage which can further be broken down into three instars separated by molting events. At the first and second instar, the larva consumes until molting, at which point it increases in size and grows for the next stage. Once at the third instar it consumes until ready to pupate. The third instar larva leaves their area of consumption for a drier environment at which point they cease moving and harden their cuticle, a thin outer layer of the larval body. The pupa remains in this stage until larval tissues have been broken down and are ready to enter the next stage, Adulthood. At Adulthood D. Melanogaster begin the mating process in which a male inseminates a female with sperm which the female stores for egg laying at a later time.

Part of ecology assignment

Submitted by mpetracchi on Sun, 09/15/2019 - 15:08

The ‘monito del monte’ (Dromiciops gliroides) will need to shift its range to cooler climates, given a change in its regional climate. Organisms live in climates which precisely fit their ecological needs, whether it be for sunlight, elevation, precipitation, etc. For this reason when climates change the organism must adapt by moving away to a new area with a climate similar to the previous one. According to the given research, ‘Monito del monte’ (Dromiciops gliroides) lives in the southern region of Chile near the Andes mountains in neighboring forests. If temperatures rose enough that D. gliroides would be forced to move it has 2 options. 

First is to move south. In the southern hemisphere the equator will become warmer and every latitude following, towards the south pole, will see an increase of average temperature. As a quick example of one may expect to see, if a species lives at given latitude A in the southern hemisphere at 17 °C and overtime the average recorded temperature rises to 20 °C the species will be forced to move south to latitude B where the previous average was 14 °C, but shifted to 17 °C. Unfortunately, a large species migration may not always be possible and what could occur is the species living far north will simply die out while the same species in the south begin to thrive. Also a few degree change may not seem significant, but it could ruin the survival rates for many primary produces which rely on temperature. A large increase in plant deaths would offset the food sources for primary consumers and then the entire community.  


My day

Submitted by mpetracchi on Fri, 09/13/2019 - 15:32

School work

Go to first class

Finish class walk around 

Next class in same hall

Do some homework

Meet with Grad Lab TA

Do homework



Go to frank/eat

Go to Worcester/eat

Go to hamp/eat


Morning/night routine

Wake up to alarm

Check phone

Get up from bed

Drink water

Go to the bathroom

Get changed

brush teeth

Do some HW if I have any

Get my school stuff


Get changed





Go to gym

Hang out with friends

Hang out



Head out to bus stop

Get off bus by fine arts center

Wait for bus

Go back to apartment

Drive to campus

Drive back to apartment


Paragraph for morning/night routine

On a daily basis I wake up at 9:30 AM to my alarm and turn it off. Then I check my phone for any emails or messages I should be responding to, mainly school emails or friends and family. Once I'm ready, I get up from my bed and stretch a bit before standing up. From here I go to the kitchen and drink some water because I get thirsty at night. I go to the bathroom and then back to my room to get changed. If I had missd any work in from last night I try nd get some done during this time. My stuff school is generally sprawled out on my desk so I pack it up in my bag. Now I'm ready to go out to the bus and go to school. Having this routine prepares me for the day and anything I may come across. When my day has concluded I make sure to shower and clean myself up before bed. I leave the shower and get changed for bed. From here I try and fall asleep quick to get the most amount of time sleeping

Comparing Scientific Literature

Submitted by mpetracchi on Thu, 09/12/2019 - 22:43

The articles Smart behavior of true slime mold in a labyrinth and Monophagous leaf‐mining larvae of Stigmella (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) on birch: patterns and differentiation in exploitation of the host have many similarities and differences in their approach to writing a scientific article. 

Informative paragraphs in the introduction are similar. Both articles begin fairly broad and give basic information that leads the reader toward a more in-depth understanding of the subject and what the article is ultimately about. Each article approaches this task differently. The Smart behavior of true slime mold is written in colloquial terms and may be easier to read for someone who is not scientifically oriented. The use of the first person 'we' , and how a question was asked open-endedly 'What sort of behavior could be expected?' are examples. This style is not very common in scientific writing and not present in the Monophagous leaf‐mining article. The Monophagous leaf‐mining article uses passive voice and no first person. It stays focused on the facts. However, this is not to say that the final product of one or the other doesn't achieve what it set out to do. 

Both articles use a level 1 header and some text before the introduction in order to give background information on the study. Both articles have sub-sections and use level 2 headers for their sub-sections. In the Smart behavior of true slime mold article, the subsections give a basic description of what the section will be on, almost like a topic sentence. The Monophagous leaf‐mining article uses a scientific subsection style consisting of an introduction, methods, etc. Both achieve a similar premise of describing what the following section is about by different means. The subsections in Smart behavior of true slime mold usually begin with introductory sentences which give the reader a basic overview of what will be discussed, while the Monophagous leaf‐mining sections immediately introduce the content and skip the 'fluffy' introductory sentences. In both articles, the subsections are used to introduce the new content to continue the flow of the paper. They both follow logical schemes which lead the reader to a final conclusion.


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