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Seed Germination and Plant growth rates

Submitted by nskinner on Fri, 10/18/2019 - 13:56

ABBASI, F. F. et al. Priming Comparison of Corticated and Decorticated Mango Seeds for Productive Seedling Rootstocks. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, [s. l.], v. 56, n. 4, p. 839–846, 2019. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 18 out. 2019.



Emerging technology applications for improving seed germination
Rifna E.J., Ratish Ramanan K., Mahendran R.
(2019)  Trends in Food Science and Technology,  86 , pp. 95-108.

Cranberry Intro

Submitted by nskinner on Wed, 10/16/2019 - 21:21

A well-documented indicator of climate change effecting the ecosystems is flowering times of plants. Earlier flowering times have resulted from the changing climate and one of the species affected by this phenomenon are cranberries, Vaccinium macrocarpon, native to Massachusetts. The increase in global temperature has changed the phenology of this species which has left it vulnerable. This has major implications to cultivators of cranberries whom have been largely used to sustain a growing population of people. This change in phenology can be seen using the documented times of cultivators spraying flowering cranberry bud with fungicides. Ultimately, cranberry flowering times is a well-documented event that casts insight on how climate change can affect flower phenology and crop yield of a major food source in the North Eastern United States.


Submitted by nskinner on Tue, 10/15/2019 - 20:30

Post-apocalyptic societies in literature often bring out violent behavior in human characters. Dystopian novels are often based off violence between others, whether it be violence between government and citizens, or violence between citizens amongst themselves. Desperate times call for despite measures and bring out acts of vehemence and desperation. Two novels that really bring out this theme of violence during post-apocalyptic events are Parable of the Sower, by Octavia Butler, and The Handmaids Tale, by Margaret Atwood.  Both novels are about a dystopian society after a post-apocalyptic event and they both show violence, but in different ways. In both novels, violence is used to control people with fear. Even in a society that is falling apart, there is always someone trying to assume control. The control is gained through fear that is induced by violence. Desire to have things is another leading driver of violence in these societies. People become desperate and will do anything to gain what they do not have. Such acts of violence include cannibalism, rape, murder, etc. It seems that when humans are put into desperate situations they become violent over basic needs such as food, clean water, companionship, sexual desires etc. Although each novel has different types of dystopian societies, in both cases citizens are not getting basic needs and commit acts of violence to get those needs

Results First Paragraph

Submitted by nskinner on Sun, 10/13/2019 - 20:15

The replicate multi panel figure created by another student had difference amongst each panel. The Figure A images showed differences in hand orientation, use of an item to scale size, and how much of the bark from the shoot is in the image. The figure B images show differences in shadowing, the arrows pointing to the evidence of phytophagy, and variance in the distance the photo was taken from the tree. Figure C shows difference in shadowing and it is less inclusive in the replicate than the original in regards to how much of the background is included. Figure 2 also showed some differences in the map and the red X that marked the spot. The overall look of the two multi panel figures differed as well. Ultimately, each figure had difference that can be noted.

Introduction Body

Submitted by nskinner on Sat, 10/12/2019 - 21:01

To determine if the students were able to replicate the multi panel figure first created by a fellow student, they were assigned the Methods Project. The approach taken was to locate evidence of phytophagy, take pictures of it, and create a multi panel figure with those photos. Those photos were to be labeled, show a reference to the size of the evidence, and include any arrows or graphics necessary to show where that evidence was located on campus. 

The leaf that I selected that showed evidence of phytophagy was chosen because of its accessibility. It was located on a shoot that was distinctive enough that another student following the methods would be able to find that exact leaf. The location was easy and convenient to access for anyone. The controlled factors would include weather and time of day that the photo was taken. With these factors considered another student should be able to replicate the figure after reading the methods.


Introduction First Paragraph

Submitted by nskinner on Sat, 10/12/2019 - 20:52

In order for any scientific work to become valid it must be replicated by other scientists who must be able to redeem the same results as the original experiment. The Methods Project that I was assigned in my junior writing class in Fall of 2019 is a way for students to practice descriptive scientific writing. After doing this project the student should be able to describe their method of completing a task to such an extent that another student should be able to follow that method and replicate that task. The task in this project was to create a multi panel figure that displayed evidence of phytophagy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst campus. Although the students are mostly juniors in college, their ability to write a proper methods section in a scientific paper is unknown.

Abstract Practice

Submitted by nskinner on Fri, 10/11/2019 - 22:25

To determine whether the vegetation patterns at higher elevations and altitudes resemble that of the vegetation patterns are higher latitudes, we counted the number of individual Vaccinium vacillans in 11 random 4x4 meter plots in three sites. One site was of an elevation of 400 meters. Another site was at 60 meters but still located in the same general latitude as the 400-meter site. The last site was at a higher latitude than the two previous mentioned sites. Our results showed that the number of individuals at a site of higher elevation closely resembled the number of individuals at a higher latitude site. The site that was at a lower elevation showed more numbers of individuals than either the higher latitude site or the higher elevation site. We concluded that vegetation patterns at higher elevations did resemble vegetation patterns at higher latitudes. These results suggest that this is ubiquitous in other regions.  

methods to counting blueberries

Submitted by nskinner on Wed, 10/09/2019 - 20:44

To measure the abundance of Vaccinium vacillans, a common and widespread shrub found in New England deciduous forests, I counted the number of individuals in eleven 4x4 meter plots that were dispersed randomly at three different sites. The sites were Mt. Norwottuck, Amherst, Massachusetts (42o 18'N, elevation 400 m), Plum Creek, Amherst, Massachusetts (42o 19'N, elevation 60 m), and Deer Brook, Swanton, Vermont (44o 06'N, elevation 50 m). Each plot was chosen at random. They were measured using a metric tape measure. Compass direction was used to ensure the 4x4 meter plots were measured accurately and the edges of the plots were not askew. The individuals were counted and recorded for each plot. The recorded data was then used to create Figure 1 and table 1.    

Results Draft

Submitted by nskinner on Wed, 10/09/2019 - 09:41

Within New England, vegetation at higher elevations will resemble vegetation at higher latitudes. This can be shown by the abundance of Vaccinium vacillans at different elevations and latitudes in three sites in New England; Mt. Norwottuck, Amherst, Massachusetts (42o 18'N, elevation 400 m), Plum Creek, Amherst, Massachusetts (42o 19'N, elevation 60 m), and Deer Brook, Swanton, Vermont (44o 06'N, elevation 50 m). Descriptive statistics show that the number of individuals found at a higher elevation of 400 meters at 42o 18'N is not significantly different than that of the number of individuals found at a higher latitude of 44o 06'N but lower elevation of 50 meters. It is also shown that the number of individuals at a lower elevation of 60 meters and a latitude of 42o 19'N is significantly less than the number of individuals at the latitude of 42o 18'N which was at a higher elevation of 400 meters. Figure 1 shows the similarities of the mean number of individuals at the Mt. Norwottuck site as compared to the number of individuals at the Deer Brook site. The standard error, t-test, and P-value of these sites can also be seen in Table 2 to support the statement that vegetation patterns in higher elevations mirror the patterns of vegetation at higher latitudes in the same region.

Elevation and Latitude Intro

Submitted by nskinner on Tue, 10/08/2019 - 21:54

Vegetation generally grows in a pattern which is determined by climate. Climate is an enduring weather pattern over a given area. Due to the longevity of those weather patterns, vegetation growth is limited to what plants can tolerate those long-term weather conditions. These patterns can also hold true when comparing altitude and elevation to latitude. Altitude and elevation vegetation patterns mirror latitude vegetation patterns. To determine whether climate governs vegetation the abundance of Vaccinium vacillans from three different sites were recorded. Vegetation within a region at high altitudes should resemble that of vegetation at high latitudes. It was predicted that abundance of Vaccinium vacillans will show analogous changes as elevation and latitude increase.


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