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Methods, Plant Paper

Submitted by nkantorovich on Thu, 10/10/2019 - 11:36

The Field research was conducted on September 16th, 2015. The sites used to conduct the research were Mt. Norwottuck, Amherst, Massachusetts (42o 18'N, elevation 400 m),  Plum Creek, Amherst, Massachusetts (42o 19'N, elevation 60 m) and at Deer Brook, Swanton, Vermont (44o 06'N, elevation 50 m). The density of Vaccinium vacillans was measured on 11 4x4m plots within each site. The 4 x 4 m plots were randomly chosen on each site. The number of individual Vaccinium vacillans per site, were counted, recorded and compared. 

Plant Paper

Submitted by nkantorovich on Wed, 10/09/2019 - 16:03

Does climate determine vegetation?  Vegetation in a particular region is a display of the climate within that area. Plants are sensitive to changes in climate, therefore vegetation typically reflects its environment. Photosynthetic rates sometimes vary among plants within a habitat, and across habitats, in ways that seem to make sense because they are correlated with species composition, habitat preference, or growth rates. (cite something from book) Vegetation can also be affected by the latitude and elevation in that area. As you increase in elevation (altitude), the temperature decreases. As you move farther north or south in latitude, the temperature also decreases. Based on this trend, a hypothesis is drawn that In a given New England region, vegetation patterns will mirror in high elevations and high latitudes. It is predicted that a widespread, common species will show parallel changes in abundance as elevation increases and as latitude increases in New England.

Results Part 2

Submitted by nkantorovich on Wed, 10/09/2019 - 09:56

The original figures photographs consist of one photograph taken indoors and 3 other photographs taken outdoors. They are brighter photographs with fewer shadows on the subjects. The replicated figures photographs were all taken indoors. This resulted in higher contrast in the subjects and darker photographs. The angles of the photographs also differed. The original figure took the photographs from the eyeline of the observer. The replicated figure took the photographs from over the shoulder and from the eyeline of the observer. The set-up of the shots also differed in organization. Each figure showed the progression of eating the salad in different stages. The original figure shows the leaves being eaten with the leaf represented in every shot. The replicated photograph showed a more distracted view of the leaf in each shot. The third categorization of observed differences are in the subjects in the figure. The original figure had a male subject while the replicated figure had a female subject. The leaves in the original figure were completely bare while the replicated figure had the leaves covered in dressing. The utensils also differed in each figure. The original figure used a plastic white fork while the replicated figure used a metal fork. 


Methods: Results 1

Submitted by nkantorovich on Mon, 10/07/2019 - 10:15

The observational differences between the original and replicated figure can be broken down into three sectors: formating of the figures, mechanics of the photography and subjects in the figure. The formating in the figures were generally similar but a clear difference can be observed. The sizing and capitalization of the lettering is different in both figures. The original figure consists of uppercase and uniformed sized letters. While the replicated figure consists of different sizing and alternating casing of the letters. The photographs in the figure are also in different shapes and formations. The original figure has each photograph oriented into a square. The replicated figure has the photographs oriented into rectangles.

Methods Introduction Part 1

Submitted by nkantorovich on Fri, 10/04/2019 - 12:29

The Methods project provides evidence of phytophagy on the University of Massachusetts campus. Students on campus are found organizing in Harvest, one of the markets on campus. In this market, students collect different types of plants into plastic or recyclable boxes. These plants vary by day but typically spinach, kale and romaine lettuce leaves can be observed in this market. At certain times of the day, students will enter Harvest and collect large amounts of leaves for consumption. Factors that are controlled in this project; of time of day, type of market, area of market, area of consumption and vocal consent.

Triple E Draft 4

Submitted by nkantorovich on Fri, 10/04/2019 - 12:28

The infection spreads when enough uninfected mosquitoes are feeding on infected birds, song birds to be specific. At that point, there are so many infected organisms in one area that it spreads to other populations. The type of mosquito that spreads Triple E also spread West Nile. It is called the Culiseta melanura and feeds exclusively on birds. Once it becomes cold and frost occurs, the virus dies down until it becomes warmer and feeding cycles continue. Climate change plays a factor in this cycle as the weather is not as constant. Due to the cold and warm fluctuations in weather, a virus that should have died at a certain time of year continues to pass through organisms. Controlling such virus becomes more and more difficult as the understood life cycle of these virsus’s changes and adapts per year.

HelenBranswell, Helen Branswell, et al. “What to Know about EEE, a Mosquito-Borne Virus on the Rise.” STAT, 25 Sept. 2019,


Triple E Draft 3

Submitted by nkantorovich on Fri, 10/04/2019 - 12:26

To diagnose Triple E, there are different methods to confirm if the virus is a patient's symptoms. A spinal tap may be conducted where a portion of spinal fluid is removed and identified to see if there is any virus in the fluid. Blood can also be drawn to see if high amount of antibodies are in the blood. An MRI or CT can also be conducted to see if brain swelling is observed, signaling signs of encephalitis. When a patient is identified to have EEE, the patient will be put into the intensive unit and in some cases put into a medically induced coma. The treatment includes lowering swelling in the brain and treating potential seizures. Majority of the deaths linked to triple E come down to swelling and pressure in the brain. This is the most important sector to regulate with a patient to ensure the encephalitis is under control. There is a vaccine for horses with EEE but not for humans.

“Eastern Equine Encephalitis: Causes, Symptoms and Prevention.” LiveScience, Purch,


Triple E Draft 2

Submitted by nkantorovich on Fri, 10/04/2019 - 12:15

The cause of Triple E comes down to the movement of mosquitos. The female mosquito is the one that becomes infected and carries the virus. Birds tend to inhabit their environments of marshlands and swampy areas. Birds carry this virus but do not have any symptoms when they are infected. Mosquitos bite them then can pass the virus to mammals such as horses or humans. The virus was first identified in a horse in 1933. When the virus is in the bloodstream, it duplicates and can sometimes enter the brain barrier where it causes encephalitis. It cannot pass from person to person or animal to person. The group that is most at risk are people older than 50 and younger than 15; or those with weaker immune systems. 


“Eastern Equine Encephalitis: Causes, Symptoms and Prevention.” LiveScience, Purch,


Triple E Draft

Submitted by nkantorovich on Fri, 10/04/2019 - 11:44

Triple E is a viral infection originally caused by a virus picked up by mosquitoes when they bite it a bird. The infection is then carried from horses to humans through mosquito bites. A large majority of people that interact with the infection will not have symptoms or if they do express themselves, it will resemble flu like symptoms. The other 5% that interact with the virus will have severe symptoms such as encephalitis. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain that can be life threatening in cases of Triple E. The swelling can cause seizures and confused thinking.

“Eastern Equine Encephalitis: Causes, Symptoms and Prevention.” LiveScience, Purch,


Submitted by nkantorovich on Fri, 09/27/2019 - 15:02
  1. Introductory sentence on the Figure type

    1. Type of figure

      1. Similarities in the figure

        1. Types of photos

          1. Map

            1. There is a map on the bottom of both

          2. Replication

            1. There are two of the same pictures in the figures

          3. Labels

            1. The photos all have the same labels based on where they are located in the figure

          4. Grouping

            1. Both figures grouped the images into groups of three, including a picture of the tree, the flower and a map

          5. Sizing

            1. The pictures within the figures are all sized in the same pattern

      2. Difference

        1. Sizing

          1. The pictures on the right are slightly smaller

          2. The map on the left side is closer up then the one on the right

        2. Map

          1. The maps have different locations highlighted correlation to a different region

        3. Picture angles

          1. The angles of the flower in the pictures is different

    2. Concluding sentence on the figures


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