When the sun heats up several water bodies, water vapor starts rising up due to its low density. As it reaches a higher altitude, the temperature starts to cool down. This drop results in the vapor to condense and form clouds above. A more simplified version can be shown using a cloud in a bottle. Adding a small amount of water (or to make the process much faster - ethanol) in a 1 litre plastic bottle would represent the process in a closed system. Using a rubber cork, the nozzle of an air pump can be secured in place. Once everything is set, air is pumped into the bottle with water/ethanol. As more air is pumped into the bottle, the pressure inside starts increasing. Since PV=nRT, the temperature also starts to rise inside. This equates to the water rising once the sun heats up the seas, lakes, rivers etc. As soon as the cork is removed, there is a pop sound following by a sudden appearance of fog, which represents the cloud. When the cork is removed, there is a sudden drop in pressure, followd by the drastic drop in temperature that rapidly cools down the heated air inside, thereby causing condensation.
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Among all bioindicators, lichens have been identified as the most useful to monitor the level of pollution in the environment (Ferry et al 1973). Lichens can be found in different areas starting from warm, tropical regions to cold, polar regions and even extreme conditions, which might be deemed as too harsh for other living organisms (Weerakoon 2015). The symbiotic relationship between an algae and fungus gives rise to a lichen. The association involves the alga producing the nutrients since it has the chlorophyll to photosynthesize and the fungus provides water to the alga (Hale 1969, 1993). There are three bodies for lichens: crustose, foliose and fruticose (Brodo et al 2001). They can be used in two ways to monitor air pollution: 1) grouping the species of lichens present in a specific area 2) measuring the morphological changes or the accumulation of pollutants in the lichens (Richardson, 1991; Seaward, 1993; Gries, 1996).
Our bodies require the formation of proteins at all times - whether it is for cellular function or intercellular function or it is needed for an organ in general. All systems in our body need protein to function. The process involves two parts to it: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process by which the DNA transfers its information to an mRNA, while translation is the process by which mRNA helps to create the protein. During transcription, DNA unwinds and mRNA nucleotides (cytosine, guanine, adenine and uracil) align along the sense strand according to the base-pairing rule. Once the strand forms, it is transported out to the ribosome subunit where translation takes place. There are tRNA nucleotides floating around in the cytoplasm. They bind to amino acids and transport them to the same ribosomal subunit where the mRNA is waiting to br translated. The tRNA align the corresponding amino acids and form a polypeptide chain. Then the tRNA leaves and the polypeptide chain is either transported within the cell or out of the cell via exocytosis. Most of the time the chain is transported to the Golgi body for modification. Once done, they are packaged into vesicles and transported out via exocytosis.
Pressure, temperature and volume interact with one another as shown by the equation: PV = nRT. Pressure and volume are inversely related while pressure and temperature are directly proportional. This can be seen through an example using a fire syringe. A fire syringe is a simple glass cylinder with a piston that pushes down inside. When a small piece of gun powder cotton is placed inside and the piston is pushed down quickly, the cotton ignites and a spark can be seen. The science behind it lies in the aforementioned equation. When the piston is moving down, the volume is decreasing. With this drop, the pressure starts building up. The pressure causes the temperature to start increasing. This makes the gun cotton powder to ignite, causing a spark.
At the end of every summer, we are get to witness the beauty of fall. The gradual process of changing is seasons is hard not to notice. Every fall, the changes in the length of daylight and the drop in temperature causes the chrolophyll in the leaves to break down. As a result, the leaves start to lose their green colors and start falling off because they cannot make food through photosynthesis. The sight that is even more captivating is the variations of red and orange that we see in leaves. Light, temperature and the amount of water available affect this gradient. During low temperatures (above freezing), leaves in maple trees tend to produce anthocyanin which causes a bright red color. The intenstiy of this color increases with rainy days and decreasing with freezing temperature.
Reid CR, Latty T. Collective behaviour and swarm intelligence in slime moulds Gibbs K. FEMS Microbiology Reviews [Internet]. 2016 ;40(6):798 - 806. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/femsre/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/femsre/fuw033http://academic.oup.com/femsre/article-pdf/40/6/798/10741808/fuw033.pdf
. Physarum machines imitating a Roman road network: the 3D approach. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2017 ;7(1). Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-06961-yhttp://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-06961-y.pdfhttp://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-06961-yhttp://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-06961-y.pdf
Our bodies require the formation of proteins at all times - whether it's for cellular function or intercellular function or it is needed for an organ in general. All systems in our body need protein to function. The process involves two parts to it: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process by which the DNA transfers its information to an mRNA, while translation is the process by which mRNA helps to create the protein. During transcription, DNA unwinds and mRNA nucleotides (cytosine, guanine, adenine and uracil) align along the sense strand according to the base-pairing rule. One the strand forms, it is transported out to the ribosome subunit where translation takes place. There are tRNA nucleotides floating around in the cytoplasm. They bind to amino acids and transport them to the same ribosomal subunit where the mRNA is waiting to br translated. The tRNA align the corresponding amino acids and form a polypeptide chain. Then the tRNA leaves and the polypeptide chain is either transported within the cell or out of the cell via exocytosis. Most of the time the chain is transported to the Golgi body for modification. Once done, they are packaged into vesicles and transported out via exocytosis.
It is amazing as to how much information can be packed into our genes. Starting from our physical traits to having the ability to perform higher cognitive functions, it is all governed by our genes. The more you dig deeper into the structure of the gene, the more impossible it seems. DNA exists in the form of a helix and then it is further coiled to pack a great amount into a nucleus. The helix consists of two strands that run parallel to one another, but in opposite directions. One strand is known as the sense strand and the other one is anti-sense strand. Sense strand is usually used for mRNA transcription when making proteins. Each strand is made up of a series of nucleotides: cytosine, guanine, thymine and adenine. Each nucleotide is attached to a phosphate group and a deoxyribose sugar. The nucleotides have specific structures that are similar to one another: cytosine and thymine are the pyramidine bases, while adenine and guanine are the purine bases. The nucleotides have a base pairing rule through which they pair to one another on the two strands: adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine pairs with guanine. DNA is also self-replicating. When in need of new strands, DNA helicase (an enzyme) breaks the bond between two strands and free nucleotides make new bonds with the two old strands. This process gives rise to two new sets of DNA strands. DNA then forms its helicase again. The process is much more complex and involves other factors.
In Fall 2019, I conducted a research project in my Junior Year Writing class to seek evidence of phytophagy, i.e., eating of plants, on the University of Massachusetts Amherst campus. As a word with such a broad definition, it included examples as supporting evidence such as leaf miners, slime molds, part of a leaf eaten by an insect or animal etc. The proof I had picked for this paper was a on a plant that had a single leaf with brown patches. Brown discoloration often indicates fungal or bacterial attack, allowing them to grow on the leaf. This essentially means that they are obtaining their nutrients from the leaf. The plant was also picked due to the easier accessibility. It was situated in the Durfee Conservatory on campus and so it was difficult for any external factors such as strong winds or rain to destroy the evidence. One of the factors to control was the timing of the day. The Conservatory could only be accessed between 9AM and 4PM. The other factors were that the map used for the multi-panel figure had to be captured through Google Maps and the figures were created through Microsoft Word.
Blood doping has been an issue in the athletic community for quite some time now. Oxygen is a key component when it comes to taking part in any athletic competition. It allows the muscles to create energy and assist the athletes in taking part in their sport. In most cases, blood doping allows the person to increase the amount of hemoglobin in their blood. This helps because hemoglobin is responsible for transporting oxygen in the red blood cells. It can be done through blood transfusions, injections of erythropoietin (EPO) or injections of synthetic oxygen. Our kidneys normally produce EPO to activate the production of red blood cells and so when additional amounts are injected, they allow more oxygen to be transported to our muscles. However, what the athletes sometimes do not realize that they are at a risk for heart attacks, strokes or blood clots through these methods of blood doping. Other alternative methods for increasing oxygen levels in the blood should be taken into consider. For example, training in higher altitudes slowly but surely start increasing the amount of red blood cells we have to compensate for the lack of oxygen there and so it can really help when taking part in a sport later.