We do not just memorize all the information that is presented to us. We have to use the information we know to evaluate the problems and solve them based on the information we have. That information could be sets of laws. For example, in physics (Physics 131) we have very few laws like F=ma, or Sum of torques = 0, that are used to solve numerous problems and likewise, in organic chemistry, the mechanisms behind reactions are the laws that determine the outcome of countless reactions. Likewise, in a biology course, like BIO152, although there a lot of information, the general patterns we observe in nature may be applied to behaviors of different species and we can therefore accurately predict the causes of certain behaviors or problems in nature.
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Evolutionary development is a branch of study that began about 20 years go. Since then, two lines of research have diverged. One focuses on typological, focusing on descrete and qualitative changes in phenotype. The other is research done through investigating complex phenotypes by quantitative developmental phenomena. However, there is potential for the two to be used in explaining processes and mechanisms for evolutionary development over time. In recent years, evolutionary development offers insight on specific molecular connections between genotype and morphology. Still, the importance of how the morphology interacts with the environment will make the final determination on the fitness of the genotype. Therefore, evolutionary development has a greater potential if it is broadened from the fine details of the genotype all the way to how those genotypes affect resource use (Irschick, Albertson et al, 2013).
In an optometrist's exam room, one might find several pieces of equipment, all used to observe different parts of the eye. Commonly found in the examination room, is the phoropter, which is used to measure refractive error of the eye and helps to determine a patient's glasses and contacts perscription. Another common piece of equipment is a slit lamp, which is a microscope that allows light to enter the eye and the optometrist to view internal structures of the eye including the iris, lens and cornea. The tonometer is another tool that allows the optometrist to measure the pressure of the eye, used to detect glaucoma. It provides a more accurate measure of eye pressure, and is an alternative to the air-puff tonometer.
The extent of harm each of the invasive species had on the environment and economy was assessed. To do so, research was conducted on each herb’s effect on specific criteria regarded as highest concern to least concern granted a multiplier, with a range from 1X for least concern to 2X for most concern. The criteria were split into parameters that defined the plants’ effect in that category as high (3 points), moderate (2 points), or low (1 point) threat. The summation of points was used to quantify the threat of each herb.
Research was conducted on three invasive herbs- Alliaria petiolata, Cabomba caroliniana, and Glaucium flavium in order to determine which posed the greatest threat to Massachusetts’ economy and ecosystems. The research conducted was used to determine the extent of harm each of the invaders had in the areas they occupied and were compared to against one another. Using a bioeconomic framework that revealed the connection between ecology and economic input on ecological states, the impact of the invaders were assessed. The bioeconomic framework considered the source, transport, establishment, abundance and spread, impact, along with prevention and control of the invasive herbs.
Cabomba caroliniana, or better known as fanwort, is a perennial aquatic plant. Stems of the plant reach up to 10 meters and are branched. The leaves grow in pairs outward from the stem with fine texture. The stems themselves are rhizomes and leaves that reach the surface are diamond-shaped. Fanwort is native to subtropic-temperate regions of eastern north and south America. It was naturalized in the United States via aquarium trade. Plant fragments easly settle and grow through movements from different bodies of water carried by boits, fishing gear, wind, and currents. The plant is well adapt to grow in a variety of substrates and depths up to 30ft or in shallow waters less than ten feet. A variety of issues concerning ecological relationships and even impacts on humans arise as the density of the plants prevent use of different bodies of water. Furthermore, fanwort displaces native macrophytes and creates shortages of food for native fish.
Comparing the summed chi squared values for the average number of eggs per individual bean to the chi squared distribution, we reject the null hypothesis that the mass of individual beans does not affect the egg count. This is seen more clearly as the average number of eggs drastically varied among the bean types for individual beans. There were most eggs on each of the lima beans on average, and lesser for black-eyed peas, and least for mung beans. This corresponds to the mass of the individual beans as well, as the average mass of a lima bean is 1.25g, for a black-eyed pea is 0.21g, and for mung bean mass it is 0.07g.
In this experiment, we are testing the effect of a legume’s mass on oviposition preferences of the female bean beetle, specifically lima beans, black eye peas, and mung beans. Our control will be the mung bean group, on which the parental beetles were laid. Knowing that the beans on which they are laid will be the only food source for the larvae’s development, it must be necessary on the female’s part to lay eggs on beans that provide enough sustenance for better fitness of the offspring. Therefore- if the oviposition preferences of the female bean beetles are determined solely by the mass of the beans, then there would be an equal number of eggs per equal mass of beans, however, there would be a significantly greater number of eggs on individual beans that weigh more. We predict to find an equal number of eggs in each petri dish containing equal mass of beans, but on individual beans that weigh more, there would be more eggs overall. In other words, there should be more eggs per lima bean than black eyed pea or mung bean, and more eggs per black eyed pea than mung bean.
Forces and potential energy: Forces are pushes and pulls which can result in potential energy. Potential energy depends on the position of the object to where it wants to go. Potential energy and Electric potential: Potential energy is a result of the position of the object in relation to where it wants to go. Electric potential is a charge that changes when a charge is put in the system to create potential energy. Electric potential and electric force: electric field can be generated by a single charge, whereas an electric force requires two charges. An electric force is the result of charged particle intercting with the sum of the electric fields of all the other charged particles.
Success for the offspring of the azuki bean weevils are determined by the oviposition preferences of the female bean weevil. The choice of the female determines the food source for the larvae, and because following pupation, the beetle does not consume food or water for the rest of its life, the initial decision is crucial. In experiments that test for preferences, it was found that the azuki bean weevil had a high preference for the cowpea legume out of five beans- cowpea, mung bean, azuki bean, kidney bean, and soybean. The number of eggs per cowpea when the female was given a choice revealed roughly 6 eggs per female on the cowpea, and zero eggs per female on the kidney bean. Those laid on cowpeas revealed a reduced developmental and adult emergence rate, suggesting that the choice was beneficial to offspring success.