The location of the bottom bloom in part B is congruent in both figures, but the amount of blooms contained in the images were not. The differences in distance from the flowers arose because ideal distance was not detailed in the methods. In part C there were two different world maps used due to methods of finding the first world map not being detailed in the methods. The world map originally used may not be available online anymore. The color by which the countries were highlighted was included in the methods, but there are many different shades of turquoise on Inkscape which accounts for the difference in shade. The caribbean was also highlighted in figure 2, but this could have been due to a misunderstanding of which countries constituted central america. Overall, the methods did yield a congruent figure with minor discrepancies.
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Inferences can be made regarding the differences observed between these two figures due to how the methods were written. The differences in fonts, bolding, and location of panel labels are due to there not being a precise description of how these should look. There is only a description of which figures are labeled with which letter, allowing room for error. Both figures contained panel labels that were in black, potentially due to black being the most common font color. There is also a color difference in parts A and B of both figures. This may be due to the differences in cameras used, or differences in day time when the pictures were taken.
In part A of both figures, the camera angle and orientation of the sign in front of the orchid differed. There was explanation of how to orient the plant using the sign as a reference in the methods, but these instructions were followed more closely in the second figure. The picture was initially taken,then the methods written, making the methods conform less to the picture. There was also less description about the distance between the orchid and the photographer which could account for there being more of the bench and surrounding plants included in figure 2.
The authors mentioned early in their introduction that there have been eleven hypotheses suggested regarding the purpose of stotting in Thomson’s gazelles. They theorized that a gazelle’s probability of stotting may change depending on the type of predator pursuing them, if they are singled out by the predator, or their physical condition. For one prediction, the authors identified two types of predation styles, stalking and coursing, and compared the incidence of stotting between the two. They theorize the purpose of stotting in response to a coursing predator would be to demonstrate a gazelle’s ability to outrun them making the chase futile. Another predition tested was the difference in probability of stotting when approached by African wild dogs, a coursing predator, and how the way the dogs approached a gazelle might change its rate of stotting. An additional predition the authors tested was how the proportion of stotting in a gazelle might make that animal more or less likely to be chased by African wild dogs. Their last prediction was that stotting rates were an indicator of each individual’s health.
In general, both figures seem to be relatively analogous but there are some differences. The fonts for each panel label are different, and the font in figure 2 is bolded. The location of the panel labels are also different. The labels in figure 1 are located above the images and the labels in figure 2 are located to the left of the images, however they are both located in the upper left-hand corner for each image. The panel labels in both figures are not overlapped on top of the images and are both colored black.
The images of the orchid in part A of both figures are almost congruent, but there are differences in image color between figures. In figure 2A the orchid is located further from the photographer and the sign is facing the camera more dead center. The sign in figure 2A is also more straight up and down. In figure 2A there is more of the plant to the right of the plant of interest included in the photo than in figure 1A and the bench upon which the plant is sitting is more included in 2A.
In part B, the angle of the flowers are similar but the amount of blooms included is different. There are also differences in color between the two figure images. Figure 2B has the entirety of the bloom included instead of just the bottom half included in figure 1B. The angle in figure 1B is more angled towards the floor, whereas in figure 2B it is more parallel to the bench. There is more of the plant to the left of the orchid and the bench included in figure 1B in comparison to figure 2B. The pot of the orchid is present in figure 2B and is not included in figure 1B.
Part C was where both figures differed primarily. The world map in figure 1C contains an elliptical outline where in figure 2C there is no outline but there is a rectangular shape. The world map in figure 2C is also larger than that of figure 1C and more stretched out on both sides. The depiction of antarctica in figure 2C is also a lighter color gray than the rest of the map. The colors by which the countries were highlighted were both turquoise but figure 1C was a brighter turquoise than figure 2C. The countries colored in were almost identical, but the caribbean islands were highlighted in figure 2C which was inconsistent with those highlighted in figure 1C.
The aim of the Methods Project is to construct a scientific figure so a comparative figure can be created using a set of methods. In scientific writing, it is imperative to write a clear and concise methods section so other scientists can replicate the results of an experiment. The figure created as a result of this project depicts the orchid species Oncidium Sharry Baby and where it can found indigenously throughout the world. This orchid is found on the University of Massachusetts campus in Durfee conservatory, which is student accessible. Oncidium Sharry Baby is a tall plant making it easy to spot, with only one bloom allowing for control of the close up image. The blooms are fragrant, unlike many of the flowers surrounding it, further drawing attention towards the orchid of interest. Utilizing a ‘fragrant flower’ sign located in front of the plant as a reference point controlled the orientation of each image. These reasons allow for the controlled creation of a parallel, representative figure of this plant.
- The location of tree is different in figure 2
- The trunk width of the tree is smaller in figure 2
- The entire tree is in the photo in figure 2, not just the branches closest to the base like in figure 1
- The distance from the tree is larger in figure 2
- The arrow used is smaller, thinner , and at an angle in figure 2, but are the color black in both figures
- The leaves are shiny instead of matte in figure 2
- The leaves the arrow is pointing to are green instead of yellow in figure 2
- The trunk is not straight in figure 2 like it is in figure 1
- The trunk is more close up in figure 2
- The arrow is smaller and thinner in figure 2 and at a different angle
- The location of the exact tree photographed in figure 1 was not included in the methods, maybe the location of another tree of the same species was included.
- A different tree was imaged in figrue 2 and was probably not the same age as the tree imaged in figure 1
- The photographer was standing father from the tree in figure 2, therefore there may not have been a description of how much of the tree was included in figure 1A
- The distance in figure 2 changed maybe because the photographer was including the entire tree in the image, unlike in figure 1 where only the bottom half of the tree was included
- There was most likely not a description of the size of the arrows included in figure 1, but there was consistant coloring
- The leaves look much different in figure 2, maybe this is due to the time of year the tree was imaged in figure 2 differing from that of figure 1. This also could be an indication that these trees may look very similar, but they are not exactly the same species
- There was either not a description of the yellow of the leaf imaged in figure 1, or there were no yellow leaves on the tree imaged in figure 2 so they had to settle with green
- The trunks of both trees are straight (as seen in part A) but the second figure has an crooked image of the trunk. There may not have been description about the orientation of the trunk in figure 1
- The trunk may be more close up because the amount of the trunk included in figure 1 cwas specified in the methods, but because the trunk in figure 2 is smaller it had to be closer to the camera to fill the space
- The arrow is also not the same width in figure 2 as it is in figure 1, it is also at a different angle in figure 2 than in figure 1 which may illustrate that there was no description of arrow orienation either
Observation: The days are becoming longer and the snow is beginning to melt.
Inference: Spring is coming.
Metamorphosis, Greek for transformation or change in shape, describes what takes place once a caterpillar forms a chrysalis. There are four stages to a complete metamorphosis in insects; the first being the egg, larva, pupa, and finally adult form. When a female monarch butterfly lays her eggs she chooses a healthy leaf to do so, as the leaf then becomes food for the delevoping larva. Monarchs, in particular, choose the milkweed plant on which to to lay their eggs, as the toxic sap from the plant translates into the caterpillars’ bodies, making them toxic as well. The toxicity keeps predators away as the caterpillars continue to eat until body size has increased one hundred fold. During this growth process the caterpillars also molt about four to five times to make room for more growth. After 9 to 14 days from hatching, a caterpillar will be about 2" long and fully-grown. The goal for a caterpillar at this stage is to be sufficiently nourished for the later formation of a chrysalis.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of both the ocean and the atmosphere. The NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, and conducts research to improve understanding and protection of the marine environment. The agency provides a weather radio (NWR), which broadcasts warnings, watches, forecasts, and other hazard information 24 hours a day. The data they provide for the public eye is uncompressed and suitible for statistical calculation. The data manipulated in this project is collected from the NOAA’s Natural Data Buoy Center. The center includes many collecting sites from all over the world that gather data regarding wave height, period, direction, and steepness. The specific wave-height data used in this project is gathered from Buoy Station 51201, which is located in Hawaii’s Waimea Bay. This pacific archipelago is renowned for its powerful waves that attract surfers from around the world.
This plant is found in the third room of Durfee Conservatory when entering street side from Thatcher Road. Once in the third room, Oncidium Sharry Baby is found on the right side against the wall on the bottom of the three shelves. It is a tall orchid with a cluster of small, fragrant purple and white flowers. The first photo, located in upper left side of the figure, is taken standing directly in front of the plant with the white sign ‘Fragrant Flower’ facing the photographer. This first photo is labeled ‘A’ in the figure.
The second picture taken is a close up of the flowers. There is a single string of blooms coming off to the right of the ‘Fragrant Flower’ sign, and this photo is taken with the last bloom in the bottom left of the photo. This photo, located in the upper right side of the figure, is labeled ‘B’.
The final part of the figure is a map of where this flower can be located. This orchid is natively found in Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. This figure is created on Inkscape, using a world map with country outlines found with a google search. The countries listed are filled in with turquoise, and the map is below below the two images of the specimen. This final part of the figure is labeled ‘C’.