Hypoxia

Submitted by abnguyen on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 23:07

For this project our group will continue using non-small cell lung cancer.  NSCLC metastasizes to the adrenal gland, bone, brain, liver and the other lung.  For a tumor cell to grow and expand into other cells it needs a stable blood supply and a hypoxic environment.  In tumor cells, hypoxia is regulated by hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha.  HIF1α can be translocated to the nucleus, bind with HIF1β and increase transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).  VEGF leads to the formation of more blood vessels which supply the tumor cells with more nutrients. 

            Hypoxia also stimulates growth factors such as IGF and EGF which inhibit apoptosis.  Cells can also escape death in the hypoxic areas by reducing cell division and lowering their metabolism.  Tumor cells also have their own level of selection occurring.  After generations of cell formation, the cells in the hypoxic areas are the ones that can survive hypoxia based apoptosis.  These tumors will have a more aggressive phenotype and be significantly harder to treat than their earlier stage counterparts.

            HIF1α can initiate apoptosis but can be overwhelmed in the hypoxic environment.  HIF1α has the ability to release proapoptotic proteins such as BNIP3 to stabilize p53 and start the process of apoptosis.  However, during hypoxia, IAP-2, an antiapoptotic protein is released. This neutralizes BNIP3 and other proapoptotic protein such as BAX are down regulated.  Our goal is to reduce the level of hypoxia in the environment for HIF1α to perform apoptosis while IAP-2 cannot function.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1770458/

https://www.cancer.gov/types/metastatic-cancer

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821869/

Discussion Draft 2

Submitted by kmichaud on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 22:41

Morphological differences in the floral structures may have contributed to this result. The tube-shaped flowers of Monarda didyma were relatively narrow in comparison to the wider tube of the Penstemon digitalis flowers and the flat, open surface of Lythrum salicaria. The act of foraging in a tighter space may have increased the surface area of the worker exposed to the inoculum. The workers may then have transported the inoculum to subsequent flowers and experienced re-exposure to the pathogenic cells with higher exposure in an environment with more potential flowers. This theory does not account for the re-exposure at already probed flowers present in inflorescences with fewer total flowers. For “low” treatment trials, it would be expected that re-exposure would have more significant effects. Consequently, maintaining a constant amount of inoculum across the entire inflorescence between treatments would predict that the foragers on Penstemon digitalis would have received the highest level of infection. This was not observed in experimental trials, indicating that another floral trait is responsible for this difference.

Though flower number within species may not contribute definitively to transmission, other floral traits related to flower number may be causally involved. Floral nectar contains an array of chemical compounds capable of interacting on a medicinal level with pathogens of B. impatiens (Adler 2000; Manson et al. 2010; Baracchi et al. 2015; Biller et al. 2015; Richardson et al. 2015; Thorburn et al. 2015). Though these compounds have been determined to impact disease loads in individual bees as dietary supplements, their impacts on transmission have not been established. Secondary compounds in nectar may have antimicrobial properties linked to reducing unwanted bacterial organisms acting as a preservative in the nectar (Adler 2000; McArt et al. 2014). Nectar in open flowers is an attractant to pollinators and may be degraded by overgrowth of bacterial cells and their byproducts, reducing the visitation by pollinators and subsequent reproduction (Adler 2000; McArt et al. 2014). Plants that keep their flowers open for longer periods of time may invest more in their production of secondary metabolites to maintain preservation of their exposed nectar for extended periods of time. These costly preservative investments may result in production of fewer flowers with increased longevity.

cancer genetics check in part 2

Submitted by jdantonio on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 22:27

For cell adhesion and motility we plan on also targeting the wave-3 and scr pathway which would decrease cell extracellular matrix remodeling in the primary tumor cells. Wave-3 dictates the remodeling of cellular matrix in the primary tumor allowing cancer cells to detach and leave the tumor while scr control gene the ability of cells once in the blood to adhere to the pre metastatic niche. In combination with our treatment of the niche this would prevent tumor spread to new areas by preventing the cells from leaving the primary tumor and making it hard for them to adhere to cells if they make it out of the tumor. The down regulation of miRNAs that are responsible for up regulation of remodeling genes could be accomplished by the use of microRNA sponges sequences of repeated 25 bp repeated sequences that complement the miRNA strands. This would cause the miRNA to bind to the sponge sequence and thus make them unable to bind their target sequences  For angiogenesis I plan to work with jill and develop an anti angiogenic treatment to further prevent the spread and survival of secondary tumors. Also with cell signalling we’re looking for a way to target prostate cancers very large oncosomes (exosomes) and thus disrupt communication from the primary tumor to the secondary tumor sites such as the lymph nodes. The large size of the exosomes present a rare opportunity to remove many pro metastatic agents from the blood at one time. We will further this reduction in angiogenesis through  cryo treatment the localized freeing of lymphatic and vascular tissue created by the cancer cells. Through a series of biomarkers it is possible to identify and isolate the cancer vasculature and lymph only and thus allow us to target only diseased tissues

Bacteria grows cement: PP

Submitted by lcampion on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 21:43

Ginger Krieg Dosie started a biotechnology start up called bioMASON in North Caroline which is paving the way for creating earth friendly building materials. This article focuses on their process of growing cement and forming bricks using the natural cellular metabolism product, calcium carbonate, from a bacteria when in prime conditions. This bacteria is a strain from the Bacillus family. This strain is ideal because it is naturally occuring and does not cause disease. The process of creating the biocement starts off by pouring a batch of the bacteria over fine sand. The mixture is stirred in a giant vat, similar to your every-day electric baking mixer. The mixture is them poured onto a table where pressure and vibration working together to form cement blocks. These blocks are them moved into a shipping container and left to dry at room temperature for three to four days. The finished product is an off white brink that can be easily colored or textured to designer needs. To ensure the bricks stand up to the same stress and pressure standards of conventional bricks, the company has put them to the test in the lab. So far the bricks have undergone water errosion testing, pressure and weight testing, and extreme temperature testing. They have also used the brinks in the real world, so far building small walls and walkways.  

Bacteria grows cement

Submitted by lcampion on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 21:42

Ginger Krieg Dosie started a biotechnology start up called bioMASON in North Caroline which is paving the way for creating earth friendly building materials. This article focuses on their process of growing cement and forming bricks using the natural cellular metabolism product, calcium carbonate, from a bacteria when in prime conditions. This bacteria is a strain from the Bacillus family. This strain is ideal because it is naturally occuring and does not cause disease. The process of creating the biocement starts off by pouring a batch of the bacteria over fine sand. The mixture is stirred in a giant vat, similar to your every-day electric baking mixer. The mixture is them poured onto a table where pressure and vibration working together to form cement blocks. These blocks are them moved into a shipping container and left to dry at room temperature for three to four days. The finished product is an off white brink that can be easily colored or textured to designer needs. To ensure the bricks stand up to the same stress and pressure standards of conventional bricks, the company has put them to the test in the lab. So far the bricks have undergone water errosion testing, pressure and weight testing, and extreme temperature testing. They have also used the brinks in the real world, so far building small walls and walkways.  

The best part about these bricks are their environmentally friendly manufacturing process. Compared to traditional cement bricks which require sand, limestone, and intense heating to 2800 degrees fahrenheit. This process results in a huge emission of carbon dioxide from both the buring of fossil fuel to create this temperature and the chemical reaction between the limestone and minerals in the sand which producing carbon dioxide as a biproduct. With the world in need of more and more cement for building material, and the growing push for companies to cut back on carbon emissons, the bacteria grown cement could solve a lot of problems. As the company continues to grow, they're working on mobile bacteria cement makers that would make it easy to grow the cement essentially any where.

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/carbon-emissions-growing-cement-bricks-bacteria-biomason/

Bio 285 Hw excerpt

Submitted by sjurgilewicz on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 21:02

The cell would benefit from this delay during G1 to make sure the proper conditions are present in the cell. During G1 the cell also checks for stress (starvation), checks the DNA's size and it needs to receive social signals which eventually allow for cell division. 

Occasionally there are error in sister chromatid separation caused by errors in metaphase. Was this caused by an error in the intracellular control? Would the affected cell be then headed for programmed cell death?

journal

Submitted by jiadam on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 20:36

Translocation event creates Bcr-Abl

Cells have tools in place to repair DNA damage and try to fix what was disrupted. During the translocation event, the double strand breaks in DNA on 2 chromosomes. What happens is that two pieces of DNA get switched and this creates a protein that is actually function. In this situation, the N terminus of Bcr binds to the abl gene minus the N terminus portion of Abl. Because of the translocation event, Bcr now creates binding sites for other proteins. This has negative ramifications because Bcr is now interacting with more cell proliferation and survival pathways which can lead to cancerous cells. Originally, the normal abl cell contains a nuclear export signal and nuclear localization signal that allows it to move in and out of the body. The Bcr-abl translocation causes the localization of the protein to be solely cytoplasmic. In addition, the bcr-abl kinase now contains a coiled coil domain which allows the abl to dimerize and autophosphorylated which activates each other. This leads to overexpression of cytoplasmic signaling activity. The bcr-abl gene loses its ability to work in DNA damage pathways and gains a hypermutation phenotype that makes mutations more likely and accumulate in different cellular pathways.

Perfect Paragraph - Iguanas

Submitted by kcapri on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 20:30

Iguanas are very common animals in Puerto Rico. They are large lizards, around 6.5 feet long and can reach up to 11 pounds. They have long, intimadating claws with green bodies. They often are seen sunbathing on rocks and around the city, and even in places such as El Morro Fortress in Old San Juan. Since iguanas are ectotherms, they need to sunbath in order to obtain energy for their metabolic functions. Iguanas are mainly herbivores and these green, or common, iguanas feed mostly on fruit, flowers, and leaves. Their scientific name is Iguana iguana. Some defense mechanisms of this species are their strong jaws with extremely sharp teeth. These, as well as their sharp tails, help defend off predators. Additionally, if their tail is caught by a predator, they can detach their tail to make a get away. This does not harm the iguana because they will eventually grow another tail back. Another unique fact about iguanas is that they can live up to 20 years.

Metastasis Occurring in Pancreatic Cancer

Submitted by jgirgis on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 19:58

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a cancer that quickly turns metastatic, which is why PDAC has a 5% survival rate.  Because of this, PDAC is the 4th most common cause of cancer-related death. PDAC metastasis is considered advanced when it has metastasized to distant locations such as the lungs, bone, brain, etc. In PDAC patients, hypoxia always occurs. Hypoxia means low oxygen. Hypoxia is related to metastasis because it activates tumor progression, malignancy, and resistance to therapy. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) facilitate hypoxia. Oncogenes or tumor suppressors that are inactive activate HIFs. In PDAC, a major regulator of hypoxia is inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In addition, in PDAC patients that display hypoxia there is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that occurs at HIF-1 G1790A and C1772T. It was discovered that patients that had these SNPs had an increased risk of metastasis occurring faster.

 

Source: https://www.dovepress.com/the-impact-of-hypoxia-in-pancreatic-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis-peer-reviewed-article-HP-

Observations of Lizards in Puerto Rico

Submitted by kcapri on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 19:51

Also on my trip to Puerto Rico, I observed several different species of lizards that I had never seen before. I learned a lot about them from this vacation. First, I saw many iguanas, which I had never seen before. They are large lizards, around 6.5 feet long and anywhere up to 11 pounds. They have long claws that seem very intimidating. They often are seen sunbathing on rocks and around the city even. My first experience with one was when touring the El Morro Fortress in Old San Juan. The giant lizard was very peaceful basking in the sun, then I looked around and noticed there were around six more throughout fort doing the same thing. Since iguanas are ectotherms, they need to sunbath in order to obtain energy for their metabolic functions.

 

Image 1. Photograph depicting an iguana laying in the grass. Taken from http://animals.mom.me/list-herbs-iguanas-8702.html.

 

Though at first I was intimidated by the creature, I was soon assured not to be frightened because iguanas are mainly herbivores and these green, or common, iguanas are used to people. They feed mostly on fruit, flowers, and leaves. Their scientific name is Iguana iguana.

 

Some defense mechanisms that these lizards have are their strong jaws with extremely sharp teeth. These, as well as their sharp tails, help defend off predators. Additionally, if caught by a predator by the tail, they can detach their tail to make a get away. This does not harm the iguana in the long-run because they will eventually grow another tail back. Another unique fact I learned about iguanas are that they can live up to 20 years.

 

SOURCES:

Green Iguanas. National Geographic. 2017 [accessed 2017 Mar 23]. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/green-iguana/

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