Conclusion Draft PP

Submitted by kmichaud on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 09:00

Based on these findings, flower number alone does not conclusively impact disease transmission. Other morphological or chemical traits not yet studied are likely better indicators of disease severity. Further manipulations on traits related to transmission and an extensive study on floral longevity and nectar chemistry relationships would provide a clearer mechanism for disease propagation at the transmission level. Such a comparison between floral longevity and flower species studied in the Adler et al. (2014) study is currently underway and may provide further insight into the trait variation of flowering plant species.

journal

Submitted by jiadam on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 08:48

Translocation event creates Bcr-Abl

Cells have tools in place to repair DNA damage and try to fix what was disrupted. During the translocation event, the double strand breaks in DNA on 2 chromosomes. What happens is that two pieces of DNA get switched and this creates a protein that is actually function. In this situation, the N terminus of Bcr binds to the abl gene minus the N terminus portion of Abl. Because of the translocation event, Bcr now creates binding sites for other proteins. This has negative ramifications because Bcr is now interacting with more cell proliferation and survival pathways which can lead to cancerous cells. Originally, the normal abl cell contains a nuclear export signal and nuclear localization signal that allows it to move in and out of the nucleus. The Bcr-abl translocation causes the localization of the protein to be solely cytoplasmic. In addition, the bcr-abl kinase now contains a coiled coil domain which allows the abl to dimerize and autophosphorylated which activates each other. This leads to overexpression of cytoplasmic signaling activity. The bcr-abl gene loses its ability to work in DNA damage pathways and gains a hypermutation phenotype that makes mutations more likely and accumulate in different cellular pathways.

REU application draft 2

Submitted by kmichaud on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 08:27

As a member in Dr. Lynn Adler’s lab, I was exposed to the world of plant-insect interactions and pollinator related research relatively early on in my undergraduate career. I assisted with bumblebee projects as a first semester freshman as part of the First-Year Research Experience for honors students in life sciences. Following the completion of the program, I chose to remain with Dr. Lynn Adler’s team because I thoroughly enjoyed working with live organisms and was inspired by my contribution to the conservation of declining pollinators. I continued in the lab my sophomore year and took on the role as lab manager in my spring semester. I was then a project manager during the summer field season, which was an opportune time to collect data for my thesis project on disease transmission in bumblebees while obtaining valuable leadership experience managing a field team.

Epigenetic diseases

Submitted by jdantonio on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 01:32

Epigenetics is the study of gene expression modification that does not change the genetic sequence of a DNA segment. There are a number of different mechanism by which epigenetic modification occurs, the first discovered of which is DNA methylation. DNA methylation occurs when a methyl group is added to the DNA molecule this in turn cause the condensation of chromosomes from euchromatin which can be read to heterochromatin which is to densely packed for gene expression. This chromosome condensation thusly prevents gene expression even though the gene itself is present in the nucleus, such a gene is said to be silenced.

 Epigenetic modification is associated with the inheritance of many different genetic disorders two of which are angelman syndrome (AS) and prader willi syndrome(PWS) which are two closely related genes that are associated with maternal and paternal line genetic imprinting( another term for DNA methylation).  In PWS the gene which creates the functional gene product is imprinted in the maternally inherited mammalian chromosome, this is usually compensated for by its presence in the paternal chromosome. PWS is caused by a de novo deletion of the paternal copy of the PWS gene, coupled with its maternal imprinting  this causes the individual who inherits these chromosomes to have no active functional copy of the PWS gene  and causes PWS. AS is conversely imprinted in the paternal chromosome of mammals and is compensated for ny the expression of the AS gene in the maternal chromosome. In AS the AS gene has been lost on the maternal chromosome by the de novo deletion of the AS gene. With the paternal copy of AS inactive do to imprinting  and the maternal copy of AS lost to deletion no functional copy of AS is present and the AS disease phenotype occurs. These genes are said to be  sister diseases as their inheritance is mirrored, one caused by paternal imprinting and maternal deletion the other by maternal imprinting and paternal deletion, and they are located in the same region of the chromosome.  

 

Holliday R. 2006. Epigenetics a Historical Overview. Epigenetics 1(2): 76-80. Taylor and Francis.< http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/epi.1.2.2762>. Accessed 2017 Mar 24.

Nicholls RD and Knepper JL. 2001. Genomic organization, function, and imprinting in prader willi and angelman syndromes. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 2: 153-175. Annual reviews. <  http://annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.genom.2.1.153>. Accessed 2017 mar 24.   

Sleep and dementia

Submitted by koganezova on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 01:14

I receive weekly updates on the recent new findings in the medical world and came across one today that was extremely intriguing. New studies have shown that longer sleep has a correlation to a higher risk of getting dementia. The team found that people who sleep 9 or more hours consistently are twice as likely to get dementia within the next ten years. They also found that people who sleep longer, have a smaller brain volume and are not able to retain as much information as those who consistently sleep less than 9 hours. It makes that longer sleep has all these risks neurologically speaking, because we do not use our brains for such a long period of time. Good thing being a premed student, I don't get as much sleep.

observations of a gecko

Submitted by jdantonio on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 00:30

The organism is approximately 5 inches long and has four limbs and a tail. The organisms tail takes up approximately one third of its body length. The organism has a color pattern of mostly mustard yellow scales covering  its sides and underbelly with patchy white scales along its back. And tail. There are seven patches of white scales on the organisms back but they are not wholly white as some scales in the pache are the same yellow as the belly and sides giving the patches a patchy look as well. The last cm of the organisms tail is the same mustard yellow as his belly. He has eyes that are the same shade of yellow as his side and bottom scales and he has black slit like pupils that run the entire length of his eye ball.  The organism has five fingers with claws on his front legs and right rear  feet but only has 4 on his left rear foot. The orgaims has a set of tiny spines a few mm tall that run the leg of his back in parallel framing the outside of the top of his back and head.

The organism also has two nostrils on the front of his snout. The organism tends to seek the highest point possible when in environment, climbing to the top of the tree branch in its terrarium or to the shoulder of a person handling it. When asleeep the orgaisms constrics its body into a tight ball. This may be to conserve body heat as it is a reptile and therefore lacks warm blood to maintain body temperature. The organism has a tendency to lay in the warmth of the terrariums heat lamp. The organism has the ability to jump over a foot. The organism displays an eyeball licking behavior possibly to clean the eye. The organism tends to grip objects he climbs on with both his hands and arms wrapping both legs and arms around object he climbs on.

Conclusions Draft 1

Submitted by kmichaud on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 00:22

Flower number alone does not conclusively impact disease transmission, and other morphological or chemical traits are likely better indicators of disease severity. Further studies on floral traits related to the transmission in the Adler et al. (2014) study and an extensive view into floral longevity and nectar chemistry relationships would provide a clearer mechanism for disease propagation at the transmission level. Such a comparison between floral longevity and flower species studied in the Adler et al. (2014) study is currently underway and may provide further insight into the trait variation of flowering plant species.

 Ultimate determination of the traits involved in transmission may lead to better management practices of plant species in proximity to wild pollinators. Very little is known about the role of plants in pollinator disease transmission; therefore understanding how floral traits act as a substrate for transmission between pollinators would provide valuable insight into a widely unexplored topic of study. Determining the role plants play in disease transmission also provides insight into how communal areas function in pathogen propagation, leading to an increase in knowledge of pathogen-host interactions.

PP: Natural Tri-pod vs. Robotic Bi-pod Gait in Insect Movement

Submitted by eriklee on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 00:07

Robots have been modeling the motion of multi-pedal insects. Researchers and engineers have been testing how robotic insects run naturally. Typically, insects such as spiders, cockroaches, and flies use the tripod gait, which refers to maintaining three legs on the ground at all times as the insect moves. The alternative version, which humans and other bipedal organism use is known as the bipod gait. A team of researchers compared the speed of tripod gait versus bipod gait on a six-legged robotic spider. They concluded that, on level ground, the bipod gait is 25% faster. 

Natural Tri-pod vs. Robotic Bi-pod Gait in Insect Movement

Submitted by eriklee on Fri, 03/24/2017 - 00:06

Robots have been modeling the motion of multi-pedal insects. Researchers and engineers have been testing how robotic insects run naturally. Typically, insects such as spiders, cockroaches, and flies use the tripod gait, which refers to maintaining three legs on the ground at all times as the insect moves. The alternative version, which humans and other bipedal organism use is known as the bipod gait. A team of researchers compared the speed of tripod gait versus bipod gait on a six-legged robotic spider. They concluded that, on level ground, the bipod gait is 25% faster.

Another study, conducted by researchers published on Nature Communications, tested the advantage of tripod gait. The team found supported the finding that bipod gait has a speed advantage on level surface. However, fruit flies and cockroaches use tripod gait. This provides the advantage of traversing over three-dimensional terrain with ease. They concluded that the minimal ground contact from the bipod makes it difficult to traverse terrain. 

Review Article: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/02/special-gait-helps-six-legged-rob...

Research Article: http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14494

cancer genetics project 2 Introduction rough draft

Submitted by jdantonio on Thu, 03/23/2017 - 23:34

Prostate cancer is among the most diagnosed cancer types in men ranking in the top ten in terms of cancer diagnoses and number three in deaths related to cancer among men. While a majority of prostate cancer does not metastasise the forms of the cancer that do are among the most aggressive of all metastatic cancers. Prostate cancer is rare in younger men but is common among older men by age 65 about six in every ten men are diagnosed with prostate cancer. There significant study into the effects of the environment on prostate cancer prevention, among them is diet where it has been found that isoflavone and lycopene rich foods such as tomatoes and soybeans can help to significantly reduce the chances of developing prostate cancer. The metastatic form of prostate cancer is extremely aggressive and invades multiple body tissues but its most common site of metastatic secondary tumor formation is the bones and the lymph nodes. The metastatic form of prostate cancer invades the tissues of other organs by first developing a pre metastatic niche in the area of future tumor colonization. The release of HIF-1 stimulates the upregulation of CXCR4 in the osteocytes of the human body. This upregulation in turn causes a number of changes to the non cancerous cells to modify the area for tumor colonization. For this project we will be targeting the the pathway activated by CXCR4 that activates the extracellular remodeling protein MMP-9 which remodels the extracellular proteins of  bone cells to make cancer stem cell adhesion easier and thus allows cancer cells to congregate in the bones and form a secondary tumor. In conjunction with this we will target the cancer stem cells themselves by down regulating wave-3 and scr genes which are associated with cell motility allowing the class to leave the primary tumor and cells adhesion allowing the cells to bind to no cancer niches in the bones and lymph nodes. This in combination with the modifications to the to the MMP-9 pathway in the pre metastatic niche will stop cells from migrating form the tumor and prevent any cells that do manage to leave the tumor form coming together to form a secondary tumor.

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