Ways of Adjusting a Family

Submitted by robynfarrell on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 17:21

Organisms have the capability of adjusting their family. Some organisms may regulate the number of offspring to maximize their fitness through miscarriages, and even cannibalism. With a miscarriage, a genetic mutation occurs in the developing fetus. This serves as a substantial penalty to the mother for carrying it, and a spontaneous death in the embryo occurs. This maintains the family size. Cannibalism occurs in a variety of species such as fish and rats. For example, in certain species of fish the male oxygenates the egg and on a certain occasion he might eat some of the eggs. This is due to the oxygen levels being too low. This condition causes the eggs to be in jeopardy, and rather than the whole clutch dying the father eats some of the eggs so others might survive. In other cases, the mother absorbs the fertilized eggs or developing embryos. If the environment gets too stressful for the mother, she has the ability to do this, and such a thing is seen in rats. This consumption of the fetus provides the mum with lots of nutrients and reduces the stress on her. She now might be more capable to reproduce again when the environment is more favorable.

 

Journal #39 - Biobag

Submitted by robynfarrell on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 15:14

Recently a sheep was developed in a plastic bag, called a “biobag.” It basically serves as a a womb outside of the body for this lamb to develop, rather than developing in the comfort of it’s mother. This biobag uses a “pumpless circulatory system” which helps connect the lamb’s umbilical cord composed of some blood vessels to an oxygenator, almost acting like a mother. This method makes it so that the blood in the lamb’s body is flowing only using their own heartbeat, almost so independent. So far this method has only been used on sheep, but scientists hope to take this to the next step eventually and help premature babies develop. It’s remarkable that people are able to even come up with solutions like this can solve such common problems that no one could have imagined to be fixable a decade ago.

Making Tools and Identifying Zebrafish Embyros for BIO 486H

Submitted by jgirgis on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 14:58

Making Tools and Identifying Embyros

 

Goal: To make tools to handle the zebrafish throughout the semester and to observe and identify different periods of zebrafish development.

 

Methods: Professor Alberton’s PowerPoint slides were followed to complete this day’s experiment. In summary, we first made embryo loops and probes. We followed the article titled “How to Make Embryo Loops” to create the embryo loops. We cut a small piece of fishing line, brought the ends of the line together to form a loop, and then placed the loop into the end of a pipet. To keep the loop attached to the tip of the pipet, glue was used. This was repeated three times, utilizing different lengths of fishing line to create different sized probe.

            After creating loops, we identified and described different periods of zebrafish development. We were given four petri dishes filled with zebrafish and the goal was so define and describe the period of development of the zebrafish that were given to us.

            After identifying the periods of development, an inverted microscope was utilized to take pictures of the different embryos and zebrafish.

Journal #38 - CloudFisher

Submitted by robynfarrell on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 13:01

A new invention called the Cloudfisher has come to help many people in need of water. This system works of a net that designed based on the structure of a spider’s web, and collects water from fog. A recent start up of this is located in Morocco. In this certain area tap water is so hard to come by, but fog is a constant. The net will collect all the moisture from the air, turn it into water, and will get collected by a gutter which drops right into a reservoir or tank. When wind hits this arid area, it helps push moisture through the netting trapping all the moisture. There were many years of experimenting done to figure out what kind of net would be the most effective in collecting the water. It was found that a monofilament that has tiny triangular openings got the job done. 

Journal #37--Sleep Extension Results Revised

Submitted by skhall on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 12:56

To date, 15 participants have been tested, data collection upon participants vary. Total sleep time (TST) and sleep onset time between the baseline and extension sleep periods each had a p-value less than 0.001 (n=14). This Actigraphy data indicates that children are going to bed earlier and sleeping longer based on the sleep onset time and TST.  Paired-sample t-tests were constructed to compare sleep stages and REM theta activity, between the baseline and sleep extension conditions (n=10). REM theta activity was not significantly reduced during the sleep extension condition (n=10). Data from the Go/No-Go task indicates that inhibitory control levels improved following the overnight sleep in the baseline condition (n=14). Inhibitory control has not been improved thus far following the sleep extension condition. During baseline condition, REM theta activity was positively correlated with morning inhibitory control (p=0.048). There was no significant correlation between REM theta activity and morning inhibitory control during extension condition.  

Journal #37 - Adjusting Families

Submitted by robynfarrell on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 11:27

In evolution the other day we learned how organisms can adjust their family. Some organisms may regulate the number of offspring to maximize their fitness through miscarriages, and even cannibalism. With a miscarriage, a genetic mutation occurs in the developing fetus. This serves as a substantial penalty to the mother for carrying it, and a spontaneous death in the embryo occurs. This maintains the family size. Cannibalism occurs in a variety of species such as fish and rats. For example, in certain species of fish the male oxygenates the egg and on a certain occasion he might eat some of the eggs. This is due to the oxygen levels being too low. This condition causes the eggs to be in jeopardy, and rather than the whole clutch dying the father eats some of the eggs so others might survive. In other cases, the mother absorbs the fertilized eggs or developing embryos. If the environment gets too stressful for the mother, she has the ability to do this, and such a thing is seen in rats. This consumption of the fetus provides the mum with lots of nutrients and reduces the stress on her. She now might be more capable to reproduce again when the environment is more favorable.

Organisms might also try to regulate the sex ratio to maximize fitness as well. Some organisms have the capability to change the sex ratio. In a perfect world the sex ratio would be 50:50, but that’s not always the case. In certain conditions you would benefit from one gender versus another. If there are more males than female, then it would be far more beneficial to produce more females so they would have a better chance of reproducing.

 

PP Sleep Extension Results (Revised)

Submitted by skhall on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 11:25

To date, 15 participants have been tested, data collection upon participants vary. Total sleep time (TST) and sleep onset time between the baseline and extension sleep periods each had a p-value less than 0.001 (n=14). This Actigraphy data indicates that children are going to bed earlier and sleeping longer based on the sleep onset time and TST.  Paired-sample t-tests were constructed to compare sleep stages and REM theta activity, between the baseline and sleep extension conditions (n=10). REM theta activity was not significantly reduced during the sleep extension condition (n=10). Data from the Go/No-Go task indicates that inhibitory control levels improved following the overnight sleep in the baseline condition (n=14). Inhibitory control has not been improved thus far following the sleep extension condition. During baseline condition, REM theta activity was positively correlated with morning inhibitory control (p=0.048). There was no significant correlation between REM theta activity and morning inhibitory control during extension condition.  

cancer

Submitted by scestero on Mon, 05/01/2017 - 10:34

In a recent study, reserchers discovered that physical and mental actiity help support the growth of antitumor natural killer cells. what these cells do is reduce the rate at which cancer is growing and aid cancer treatments in doing their job. They realized that when the home of the mice offered more physical ad cognitive stimulated, the mice experience higher rates of recovery. This creates unconsious changed in the sympathetic nervous system and helps the body recover at a better rate and in a healthier wwya. 

Huntington's treatment

Submitted by abnguyen on Sun, 04/30/2017 - 22:15

 Currently, there are no treatments that can completely cure huntington’s disease.  On the bright side, there are hundreds of scientists actively trying to develop a cure.  There are 2 ongoing treatments that have a high chance of helping HTT patients, the first is AUTEN-99.  This drug is a potent neuroprotective candidate for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorder.  AUTEN-99 works to degrade excess detrimental material in the cytoplasm.  This will clear up cell space and provide nutrients for functioning proteins.  AUTEN-99 has been tested on flies and has shown to stop down neurodegeneration.  AUTEN-99 has been known to work for other neuron related diseases such as alzheimer's and parkinson's.   

 

Updated discussion

Submitted by rfredericks on Sun, 04/30/2017 - 21:55

We found several types of organisms on our sample of moss. The majority of the organisms we found were nematodes. There were several tardigrades as well as rotifers but we were surprised to see that most of the organisms were roundworms(nematodes). In addition to this we found arachnids and an unidentified insect in our sample. We attributed the majority of organisms being nematodes to the fact that we collected the sample during heavy rain which could have affected the amount of organisms thriving on the top of the moss. This could also be due to our specific sample of moss or the general diversity of organisms living in moss in this area.

In our results we included two images taken from our samples of moss. The first image is an arachnid found in some of the water collected from the moss. The second is an image of one of the roundworms which is shown with a red arrow so it could be seen more easily. Above that is a pie chart to show the proportion of each type of organism that we found in our sample.

If we wanted to expand further upon this, we could try to test different mosses from different environments and compare the organisms present. Additionally, we could calculate and compare the shannon diversity index of each type of moss after our experiment is completed.

 

Pages

Subscribe to Writing in Biology RSS