Lung cancer is found mostly in the elderly for the majority of people with lung cancer are over the age of 60. However, lung cancer is still the leading cancer that causes death in both men and women in the United Sates of all ages. For the most part, populations at high risk of lung cancer can usually be classified as the people who decide to smoke. This can be seen in many people over the ae of 60. Active cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the main indicator of both high-risk populations and high-risk individuals. People of all ages are aware that lung cancer is extremely common, however still choose to smoke. Lung cancer is also steadily higher among men than women and is predominantly high among African American men and those of lower socioeconomic status. This proves just how many people are diagnosed every year.
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Today, lung caner is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. More than 300,000 Americans today have already been diagnosed with lung cancer. This cancer is found mostly in the elderly for the majority of people with lung cancer are over the age of 60. However lung cancer is the leading cancer that causes death in both men and women in the United Sates of all ages. An estimated 158,040 Americans are predicted to die from lung cancer in 2015, roughly 27 percent of all cancer deaths.
Triglyceride digestion begins in the mouth with the action of lingual lipase. In the stomach, gastric lipase breaks down the triglyceride into diglycerides and free fatty acids. Fat in the small intestine triggers the release of the hormones CCK and secretin. CCK then causes the gallbladder to contract and release bile from the gallbladder. Secretin causes the release of bicarbonate and pancreatic enzymes, including pancreatic lipase. Bile emulsifies fats which increases the surface area. Pancreatic lipase breaks a triglyceride into a 2-monoglyceride and 2 free fatty acids. Bile salts form small globules called micelles. The micellular lipids are passively absorbed and bile salts are eventually reabsorbed into the ileum, returned to the liver and recycled into bile again.
Muscles can be stimulated really fast and then start to get tired when they reach maximum contraction, or the peak of what muscles are able to do. A good example of this is Lock Jaw, which is a symptom of tetanus. In other words, your muscles will reach a point of maximum tension and soon will not be able to produce any more force. The nervous system soon starts to lose control and stop working. In extreme forms, summation can lead to complete tetanus. Muscular stimulation comes in two forms; isotonic and isometric contraction. Isotonic contractions occur when the muscle is stimulated to the most sufficient level in order to move a required load. However, isometric contraction occurs when the muscle is stimulated below the necessary force that is needed to move the load.
Anaerobic metabolism is metabolism with no oxygen. This type of metabolism is associated with fast speeds. Many organisms survive only with anaerobic metabolism; however, some may use both anaerobic and aerobic. Humans, for example, use both of these mechanisms. Anaerobic metabolism is not as efficient as aerobic metabolism when it comes to generating ATP. Many animals that use anaerobic metabolism use lactic acid to generate ATP through the oxidation, or the Krebs cycle.
Two ways of gill ventilation are pumping and ram ventilation. Pumping is the act of gasping for air which allows more water to come in. This is an efficient way of getting air into the circulatory system. On the other hand, ram ventilation is the way that sharks survive by swimming to pass water through their gills. Some species, such as sharks, only use ram ventilation. This means that they are constantly moving through the water in order to keep oxygen flowing into their bodies. Because sharks have to constantly be moving, they actually don’t sleep. Many types of animals will use water pumping when swimming at low speeds, and then switch to ram ventilation when they are swimming at high speeds. An example of an animal who uses this method would be a striped bass.
Mammals remove about twenty-five percent of oxygen that is present in lung air. Fish however, are three times more efficient. About eighty to ninety percent. Gill ventilation is an extremely efficient way of circulating oxygen throughout the body for fish.
Thermal conductivity is a very important factor to consider when talking about animals. Most people would think that air is not a great insulating agent; however, they would be wrong. Air and fur are about the same when it comes to talking about poor conductors. Geese insulate air in between their feathers, therefore giving them a good source of heat. Fur, air and adipose tissue are proven to be the best insulating agents in animals. Animal fur, the second best insulator, protects against heat loss because of its low k value. Adipose tissue, the third best, is seen in many marine mammals. It is interesting to see how these types of animals can protect themselves from the cold, all with different types of insulation.
Thermal conductivity is a very important factor to consider when talking about animals. Animal fur is a good insulating agent for animals surviving in the cold. This is proven because the fur has an extremely low k value which protects against heat loss. Another example would be marine mammals with blubber. It is proven that adipose tissue is a poor conductor as well. In fact, air is actually a better insulating agent than adipose tissue. This can raise big questions on how exactly air is a poor conductor. This shows how heat flow and a constant k are important when looking at thermal conductivity in animals.
Breast cancer rates in the United States vary by race and ethnicity. White and African American women have the highest incidence of all women. White women have a lifetime risk of breast cancer (up to age 80) of about 13%, while African-American women have a lifetime risk of about 11%. American Indian or Alaska Native women have the lowest risk of about 8%. Differences in breast cancer rates occur when women have different risk factors due to race and ethnicity. These risk factors include body weight, age at first period, age at first childbirth and age at menopause. White women are more likely to have less children and put off childbirth for longer than African-American women. African American women have more children and at a younger age. They are more prone to triple negative breast cancers than women of other ethnicities. Triple negative breast cancers include estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and HER2-negative. These have a worse prognosis than other subtypes.
Today, breast cancer is the second highest death rate in women for all cancers besides lung cancer. About one in eight U.S. women will develop breast cancer over her lifetime. This is about 12% of women in the United States. Although most people think of breast cancer as a cancer for women, 1 in 1,000 men are at risk as well. This year, about 246,000 cases of breast cancer have been invasive, while about 61,000 cases have been non-invasive, or in situ. Breast cancer rates began to decrease in 2000 and have since been increasing. Incidence seems to be much higher than mortality rate in all races and ethnicities; however, White females have had the highest incidence rate, while African American women have had the highest mortality rate.