BEfore the mass exxtinction in the late Quartenary, massive mammals roamed the earth and its seas. These animlas are predicted to be up to 50% larger than their current forms. For example the blue whale is only a fraction of the size its ancestors were back then and the bluw whale is the largest mammal on earth currently. People often neglect studying the ecosystem once a species has gone extinct. After theQuarternary there was a huge probelm with nutrient flow, specifically P, N and Fe. IN the case of P, it can be transported well by sea animals. Whales can pick up P from the ocean floor and disperse it during itss migarations. they can also disperse the P vertally in the ocean, allowing for seabirds to take advantage of this. Salmon and other anadramous fish play a huge role in P dispersal, even more so than sea birds. These fish will swim from oceans to rivers and streams and hten back into the ocean. This carries the P to land and allows for terrestrial aniamls to disperse ut on land. Salmon will carry the P up rivers and bears that eat the fish will spread it onto land.
You are here
Order Primate in the class mammalia is a group of mammals that appear to be very similar but are acctually very different. Primates are divided into two orders, Order Strepsrhini and Haplorhini. in order to tell them apart one must look at the eyes. First of all, all primates have forward facing eyes, this is a very distinct character of the primates. Order Haplorhini has a postorbital plate rather than just a bar. This means that their eyes are in a complete bone incased socket. These primates include all new and old world primates. The new world primates are the Platyrihini and the old world primates are Catarhini. New wolrd primates are primarily from the Americas while the old world primates are from Africa and Asia, aka the old world. Humans, having first evolved in africa are considered old world primates. Order Strepsrhini, can be identified by a lack of a postorbital plate in the eyes. These primates include lemurs and lorisis.
In a recent study of the microbiome, researchers looked at the effects of distinct birthing methods on the microbiomes of infants. The microbiome is the composition of bacteria that is located in the human intestinal tract. In order to study the microbiome, one has to look at the fecal matter of the subject. The study involved comparing the microbiomes of 98 mothers to their infants. The primary varying factor was whether the infant was born vaginally or via C-section. Out of the 98 infants only 12 infants were born via C-section. As the experiment proceeded, researchers found that vaginally born infants had a microbiome that was 75% similar to that of their mothers. But the infants who were born through a C-section only had a 40% similarity to the mother's microbiome. This drastic change was caused by the bacteria that the child comes into contact with in its first moments of life. An infant's microbiome is shaped by its environment and if it is born vaginally, the infant will have a similar microbiome to the mother. An infant that is born through C-section will obtain a microbiome of whatever is in the air at the moment.
Researchers have found a way to improve the memory of mice using unorthodox methods. The mice are injected with human umbilical cord blood every week for several weeks. IN this experiment mice of all ages were injected with this new medicine. Each mouse, however had a immune disorder that caused damage in several parts of the body. As the experiemnt progressed, researchers discovered that older mice that had previousy had memory problems were now able to navigate mazes. The older mice could now navigate the mazes much better than the younger mice, this is because their memory was improving. The human blood was injected into the hippocampous, this is where memories are stored and created. As more research was done, doctors discovered that the protein TIMP2 was responsible for the memory recovery in the older mice. The protein is thought to regenerate cells and control the production of certain enzymes.
I recently read an article that was published in 2013 about the taboo that surrounds fecal translpants. Doctors often times avoid the procedure for an array of reason but mainly because it is not very appealing and there is not a lot of research inthis area. In 2006 a docotr in amsterdam was confronted with an elderly woman suffering from a urinary tract infection. The women was pumped full of antibiotics to terminate the infection, but this destroyed her microbiome.This cause a bacteria, sometimes resistant to antibiotics,called Clostridium difficile took over. C.difficile causes abominal pain, diarrhea and bowel inflammation. The doctor then proposed a fecal tranplant to help combat the bacterial infection. fecal transplants work by inserting the feces of a healthy person directly into the duodeum of a sick person. The healthy feces are grinded and mixed in a saline solution. Then a thin plastic tubeis placed into the patients nose until it reaches the duodeum. Fnally, the healthy fecal matter is pumped into the body. This procedure is very bizarre and unpleasing, but it helps repair the microbiome. In repairing the microbiome, it helped the woman survive and overcome the infection. Now, more and more doctors are advocating for the use of fecal transplants over the use of antibiotics.
In the same study with the 98 infants and their mothers, researchers looked at how diet affected the microbiome as well. Young infants, 4 months, that were breast fed has very different microbiome compositions. Also, older infants, 12 months, have microbiomes that contain lactose enzymes, starch enzymes and sugar enzymes. This is because these infants no longer rely on solely breast milk to get their food. Older infants now eat more solid food and their diet is much more varied than that of a 4 month old child that relies only on milk to eat. The human microbiome is constantly changing even in adulthood and this is because we always vary in what we eat, but in infants the change is much more prevalent due to the fact that they go from breast milk to solid food in a matter of weeks. Even though it is not very difficult to change the microbiome, it takes a few weeks to alter it if there is a drastic change in diet for a long period of time.
In genetics we read an article on the microbiome of infants. The microbiome is the bacteria that aids in digestion, located in the gut. The way the microbiome is studied is by looking at diet and testing fecal matter. In this study researchers looked at the microbiomes of 98 infants and their mothers. The varying factors were that 12 of these infants were born via C-section rather than vaginally. Infants that are born vaginally have a microbiome that is 75% similar to that of the mothers’, but an infant who was born via C-section has a significantly less similar microbiome, one that is only 40% similar. This drastic change is because infants born vaginally will have bacteria in their microbiome that was placed there as they passed through and out of the birth canal. The microbiomes of infants born via C-section were made by the bacteria in their environment rather than the birth canal .
as we all know dinosaurs were some of the largest animals to ever walk this earth. They were most abunant during the jurassic period. We see them as massive and fierce reptiles with very odd body types. But one thing that almost evrey movie has gotten wrong about dinosaurs is that they had feathers. Thanks to recent studies in the field of genetics and developmental biology we know that scales and feathers are the same thing in essence. They are both modified epidermal cells nad neither are very difficult to make. Dinosaurs were covered in feathers and in fact were slightly fluffy because of it, their feathers of course were very primative. NO dinosaur had peacock feathers but the had very soft, downy feathers on their bodies, even the fiercsome T-rex had feathers. When you think it about it doesnt make much sense, but when you look at the evolution behind it everything looks a lot clearer.Dinosaurs did not completely go extinct, we see them every day. Birds are the long lost dinosaurs of our time, the few dinosaurs that survived the mass extinction evolved into birds and in turn traded in their scales for more advanced feathers.
in my advanced genetics class most people have recieved their data back. The data contains health issues and ethic information using ones own DNA. In order access the medical information we used a website called Prometheus. this site allowed us to insert our entire genome and it sequenced only the medical related SNP's along with some others. For example, you are can look at personality characteristics that you hvae inherited through genetics. The way you read it i simple. Once you've selected the data you want to see, all the SNP's that are under that category will appear. On the side it will saymagnitude, the scale is from 0-4, 4 being that that particular gene is highly expressed and may cause problems if it is medically related. The genes are also classified as bad, good or neutral meaning they by themseleves wont do any harm. As we know genes are influenced by a variety of factors including oter genes, meaning that just because you possess a certain gene doesn't mean that it will be expressed at high levels.
This year they have taken the first photograph of a black hole. The black hole is noctorious for being and extermely hostile system, from which nothing can escape. Light can't even escape the black hole. Scientists from all around the world, including Mass, have worked together to take the astounding images of the black holes. The obseravtory stations are placed in various regions throughout the entire world including the south and north pole. These stations measure and track the black holes, in particular the black hole that known to be larger that several suns, Sagitarious A. The image was created after months of observation and gathering information.