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History of Canines

Submitted by mduque on Tue, 04/25/2017 - 19:29

In a study recently published, scientists examined the genomes of over a thousand dogs including more than 160 breeds to trace the relationship between breeds. The map revealed canines bred to perform similar functions do not necessarily share the same origin. The analysis hints at a canine that could have come over to the Americas thousands of years before Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World and around the time people crossed the Bering land bridge linking Alaska and Siberia. Somehow, these dogs disappeared when European and Asian dogs arrived in the Americas. This finding suggests that not all working or herding dogs are related. Researchers are continuing to look for genetic remains of these ancient canines in the DNA of modern American breeds but have found little evidence.

March for Science

Submitted by mduque on Tue, 04/25/2017 - 11:04

The March for Science was organized in response to widespread alarm regarding the attitude of President Donald Trump's administration toward science. Trump has repeatedly called global warming a “hoax” and promised to change environmental protection laws. In March, the White House released a budget proposal that included massive cuts to the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Health. Since then, many scientific societies and advocacy organizations endorsed a march. On Saturday April 22nd, tens of thousands of people gathered in Washington DC, and in at least 600 other cities around the world, making this one of the largest demonstrations in support of scientific research in history. 

Perfect Paragraph

Submitted by mduque on Tue, 04/25/2017 - 10:21

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight cancer. It uses substances either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve or restore immune system function. Instead of using chemotherapy to target cancer cells, immunotherapy helps the immune system work better at destroying cancer cells without affecting healthy ones. There are several types of immunotherapy including the use of monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapy, oncolytic virus therapy, and t-cell therapy.

Earth Under Water

Submitted by mduque on Thu, 04/06/2017 - 15:11

I recently watched a National Geographic Global Warming documentary. They explained the dramatic problem the planet is experiencing. When global temperatures rise, sea levels follow. We have emitted so much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere that it has increased by a 1/3 in the last 100 years and is now higher than it has been in the last 1 million years. In fact, the planet has never experienced such a dramatic increase of carbon dioxide. As higher temperatures kick in, a six foot sea level rise is predicted in this century alone.  As higher temperatures kick in, many cities will be affected.  Miami for example, just a few feet above sea level, has no defense against the rising ocean. Billions of dollars of real estate are bound to be lost. If Miami were to be flooded, it would essentially need to be abandoned. The area of the world that would be most vulnerable to sea level rise would be Asia. Even a modest three foot rise would put half the rice land in Bangladesh under water. A six foot level rise would displace tens of millions of people. Many countries have already been taking action and building sea defenses. Clues about the speed of future sea level rise are found during the time of the last ice age. As global temperatures rose, the planets ice sheets melted into the sea. Sea levels rose until they settled at today's levels. How fast this happened may help predict how quickly sea levels will rise in the next century. 

Urinary System

Submitted by mduque on Thu, 04/06/2017 - 14:23

The major organs in the urinary system are the kidneys and their major role is waste excretion. They are cleaning our blood. Solid waste from the blood is eventually going to leave our body as urine. Kidneys also regulate blood volume, blood pressure, and blood pH. The ureter, bladder, and urethra are also part of the urinary system. The urinary system in males and females is essentially identical except for the length of the urethra itself. On the outside of the kidney is the Renal cortex which is the outer layer of the kidney and on the inside is the Renal medulla. In the center is the Renal pelvis, a hollow opening where the nephrons enter into and get rid of the urine. Blood flows into the Nephron through the efferent arteriole and goes into the glomerulus and into the Bowman's Capsule where filtration takes place. 

HIF1A Gene in Cancer

Submitted by mduque on Wed, 04/05/2017 - 17:52

An essential component to tumor proliferation is the hypoxia response in the body. Instances of low oxygen trigger a myriad of transcription factors necessary for angiogenesis and hypoxic responses in the rapidly growing tumor cell. The hypoxic response as a whole allows for the tumor to grow and divide in less than ideal conditions within the body. Research has found that the most influential hypoxic gene is HIF1A. HIF1A is responsible for the HIF-1 protein, a heterodimer containing an alpha and beta subunit. Analysis has shown the alpha subunit is activated in the hypoxic response and is therefore the target of many cancer treatments. Due to the impressive quantity of downstream targets of HIF1, targetting every downstream effector of HIF1 is virtually impossible. However, using the concept of exosome releasing cell lines, scientists can directly target HIF1 and knockdown its expression. A lentivirus can then be used to load the cell lines with miRNA’s against HIF1a. Also, using an mRNA sponge against miRNA 155 could be helpful. miRNA 155 attacks both VHL and PHD2 which have proved to be necessary components in destroying the HIF1 alpha subunit. 

Organization of Compact Bone

Submitted by mduque on Wed, 04/05/2017 - 17:38

Lacuna is used to deliver nutrients and remove waste from osteocytes within the bone matrix. Osteocytes communicate with each other via the canaliculi which are gap junctions and allow the transfer of nutrients and waste obtained from the Haversian and Volksman canals. The Haversian canal is the circle in the middle of the Osteon and contains the blood and nerve supply of the bone. All of these variables are involved in the vascularization of bone and limit its growth because there is a limited direct blood supply in the Haversian Canal.

Hepatitis B

Submitted by mduque on Wed, 04/05/2017 - 17:31

Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver. The virus can cause long term infection. Hepatitis B is spread through contact with the blood and body fluids of an infected person. The virus can go unnoticed for a long time because symptoms are mild. For some people Hepatitis B can be a short-term illness while for others, it can become a chronic infection. Children are more likely to develop chronic symptoms. Leaving this virus untreated can lead to severe complications such as liver cancer. Fortunately, vaccination is available and recommended within 24 hours of birth. 


Submitted by mduque on Wed, 04/05/2017 - 17:20

Some experimental and clinical data support the possibility of breast cancer prevention by using anti-estrogenic interventions (such as tamoxifen) in healthy women. Trials involving over 20,000 women reported using tamoxifen 20 mg/day or placebo in healthy women. Results showed a 49% reduction in the early incidence of breast cancer. Anti-estrogenic interventions were also associated with a reduction in osteoporotic fractures but increases in the risks of endometrial cancer, cataract, and thromboembolism. Other studies have used tamoxifen but have not been able to clearly show an overall clinical benefit nor have they shown which women this medicine is likely to benefit.

Importances of Fruits and Vegetables

Submitted by mduque on Wed, 04/05/2017 - 17:08

For most types of cancer, people with low fruit and vegetable intake experience about twice the risk of cancer compared to those with high intake. These results hold true even after controlling potentially confounding factors such as smoking. Fruits, in particular, are significant in protecting people from cancers of the esophagus and larynx. Vegetables seem to play a higher role in reducing the chances of acquiring cancer of the pancreas and stomach. Increasing consumptions and advertising these foods is of utmost importance in terms of public health. This is especially true when looking at the alarming rise of cancer in the country. 


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