As a kid, as soon as I found out that some baseball bats were made out of ash wood, they instantly became my favorite tree. Fraxinus americana -- the White Ash tree, is native to eastern and central North America. It has since expanded its range to Nova Scotia, Missouri, and northern Florida and has been naturalized in Hawaii. In addition to baseball bats, ash wood has long been sought after for its use as guitar bodies, hockey sticks, tool handles, and furniture. However, in recent years it has come under threat from the Emerald Ash Borer -- an invasive species native to Asia -- and has since been identified as a Critically Endangered species.
The goals of this experiment were to determine how ozone affects variegated plant species. They’d previously done research on if plants with leaves that were solid colors, and so this study was specifically to understand how ozone affects four different shades of this variegated plant species (Hypoestes phyllostachya) and possibly understand the mechanisms behind it. This figure contributes to the quality of the paper because it visually demonstrates the findings of the study. The ‘Rose’ shade had the highest tolerance to the ozone, while the ‘White’ shade had the lowest tolerance to the ozone. This can be seen in Figure 1 as the top row (charcoal-filtered air) looks like relatively normal leaves, while the bottom row (ozone fumigation) has leaves that look severely disfigured. I think it really contributes to the quality of the paper because it reminds us visually what ground level ozone does to organisms and why this study was performed.
Xylocopa virginica is the Eastern Carpenter Bee. The eastern carpenter bee is often confused with the bumble bee because of their similar body structure and coloring. The eastern carpenter bee is the larger of the two, with a furry yellow thorax, and a hairless abdomen. Males and females can differentiated by coloring, males have a yellow or white head, while females have an all black head. Their wings are the smae length as their body, and are brown and iridescent. They recieve their common name because of how they nest. The females chew tunnels through wood, mostly conifers, following the grain. Once the tunnels are finished, they gather pollen to create nectar and place it in the nest. They then lay their eggs on top of the nectar. They typically have only one breeding season in New England, but south where it is warmer they may have two.
For the method project, I decided to focus on bees. The thought came into my head one afternoon walking back from class, when I walked by a garden buzzing with bees. I took a few pictures, and later when I got home, I realized they were all different species of bees. I chose the largest bee for my project. Xylocopa virginica is the Eastern Carpenter Bee. The eastern carpenter bee is often confused with the bumble bee because of their similar body structure and coloring. The eastern carpenter bee is large, with a furry yellow thorax and a hairless abdomen. Males and females can be told apart because males have a yellow or white head, while females have an all black head. They recieve their common name because of how they nest. The females chew tunnels through wood mostly conifers, following the grain. Once the tunnels are finished, they gather pollen to create nectar and place it in the nest. They then lay their eggs on top of the nectar. The bees that I had taken photos of were gathering pollen from flowers, maybe for this purpose, and seemed undisturbed by my presence.
The factors I would control for this experiment is time, because bees are only active during the day. I would take pictures in the afternoon while its warm and sunny. Another factor is the species of flower, which appeared to have the most bees in comparison to other flowers in the garden. The other control would be to attempt to follow the same bee, because there are so many they can easily be confused between species and sex.
Creatine is one of the fast twitch muscles’ most basic form of energy storage. In the muscles, the creatine molecules bond to a phosphate group, which later provides the muscles with an immediate source of ATP replenishment during the first few seconds of intense exercise. By having a readily avalible supply of phosphate, ADP can quickly pair with a creatine's phosphate group, thereby forming new ATP. People supplement with creatine because studies have shown that increasing the body’s available supply of creatine phosphate can promote a faster regeneration of ATP between sets of high-intensity exercise. By allowing more sets to be accomplished, the theory is that combining the supplement with exercise will lead allow the maintenance of a higher training intensity throughout workouts, and therefore an increase in muscle mass.
The objective of this lab experiment is to observe the effects of creatine supplementation on the muscle of a mussel. Becuase the inside of the mussel's shell is composed of smooth muslce, we are interested to see whether the supplementation will have the same effect that it does on skeletal muscle in the human body. By studying the amplitude of contraction and duration of contraction with and without creatine supplementation, we hope to conclude whether or not the creatine causes a noticeable difference in the contraction of the mussel's muscle.
We predict that supplementing the muscle with creatine will allow the muscle twitch to reach a higher maximum stimulus amplitude and achieve a greater contraction time.
Hypoestes phyllostachya is a common house plant. It is also known as the Polka Dot Plant because it displays variegation; its leaves are green with patches of color. These patches can be any shade of white, pink, or red and arise from different amounts of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and anthocyanin. The ones that I've chosen for this project are specifically "rose" colored - so their spots are a specific shade of pink. The pattern of spots varies between different leaves - even between leaves on the same plant. They can range from having mostly green leaves to mainly pink leaves. These plants also seem to display symmetry in their leaves - there is one upper leaf, one bottom leaf, and one leaf on each side. There also appears to be two smaller leaves on the inside of the plant, facing opposite directions. The pattern and shade of rose patches in these small leaves are similar to all the other observable leaves, but the green parts are more yellow-tinted. These plants have distinctive leaves that should hopefully make them easy to identify.
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral originally founded in Labrador Island, Canada around the 1700s. Recently, this mineral has become popular as more individuals have discovered it’s beautiful “flashing” color when shown under light; this iridescent coloring is known as “labradoresence”, named especially because it is a light phenomenon unique to the mineral. The mechanism of this color play is the result of light shining through the rock, striking what’s called a “twinning surface” and then reflecting off and thus producing the iridescent colors. The colors, which often compared to those of aurora borealis, are comprised of blue, green, golden yellow or purple shades, while the primary color of the rock is usually gray. Labradorite pieces that have all of these colors covering the whole surface are known as “spectrolite”, which is considered to be the highest quality of the stone, primarily found in Finland or Madagascar. Some religious groups in the northern hemisphere deemed this stone as “frozen fire” that had fallen down from the Northern lights, or as a stone on Earth that contained “fragments” of this spectacle.
Hypoestes phyllostachya is a common house plant. It is also known as the Polka Dot Plant because it has green leaves with spots/patches all over them - which is known as variegation. These spots can be any shade of white, pink, or red. These different colors can rise from different amounts of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and anthocyanin. The ones that I've chosen for this project are located in the Durfee Consveratory. These ones are specifically "rose" colored - so their spots are a specific shade of pink. The coloring on these specific plants appears to be different on each leaf. Both between different plants and even between different leaves on the same plant, there there seems to be a variety in the pattern. They can also range from having mostly green leaves to mainly pink leaves. In one picture, there is a close up of one particular plant. It shows the symmetry of the plant - there is one upper leaf, one bottom leaf, and one leaf on each side. There also appears to be two tinier leaves on the inside of the plant, one facing the right and one facing the left. The pattern of rose patches is similar to all the other observable leaves in that it seems random, but the green parts are slightly more yellow tinted. It was honestly rather difficult to find a variety of articles on these plants and there is clearly still a lot more research that can be done on these plants.
About four years ago, I was mad about a project called 2045 Initiative project. The project is planning to extend human’s life to immortal. At that time, I was really attracted into the theories and methods they posted on their website without any evidence. I noticed the 2045 initiative website from “my favorite” folder in my browser yesterday. I think I can think about the methods and concepts rationally and soberly right now. In the picture of the roadmap for their technological project, there are four steps. Although I have some small questions about the first two steps, I’m starting with the third and the fourth steps. The third step is to create some synthetic carriers of personality and consciousness. I’m confused about the “personality and consciousness.” Can they be transferred? If people’s personality and consciousness get copied and pasted, what happened to their original personality and consciousness? We all know copy pasted is just copying, deleting, and then pasting. The fourth step is more unreachable than the third step. During these four years, I lost my patience and confidence little by little. And now, I feel totally unbelievable about this project.
I chose the plant Hypoestes phyllostachya, or the Polka Dot Plant. I chose it because of its unique pattern on the leaves - its leaves are green with pink spots all over them. I don't know if I've ever seen it or a plant coloring quite like it before, even though I walk along that path almost every day when I'm on campus. I was originally going to do a tree, maybe near Chadbourne Hall or Brett Hall, but then I saw this plant when walking back from class and thought it would be prettier, and also probably closer for whoever has to replicate this experiment later on. I was first drawn to this section because there were a lot of bees flying around the plants and people kept trying to hurry past them - it made me want to stop and look more closely at all the flowers in the garden. I observed a few of the flowers and plants and then I selected what I thought was the most interesting looking one. The bees also seemed to be pollinating the flowers on either side of this plant, but not this one exactly. The description on the card for it gives the scientific name, as well as calling it a "Hippo 'Rose'". It also states that it is 16-22 inches tall and 6-10 inches wide. It says "shade to full sun." which I'm assuming means that it can grow in either the shade or full sunlight. It also says that this plant is heat tolerant and adaptable as a house plant. Overall, I think this is a pretty unique and colorful organism.
It is located at the Durfee Conservatory. It is a part of what is labeled as the Demonstration Garden - part of the conservatory that's outside. It is right in bewteen a section of very vividly pink flowers and a secion of small purple flowers. I was walking from the ILC to my dorm in Brett Hall. I took the stairs up the walkway in between Morrill North and Morrill South. When I got to the top of the stairs, there was a center circle rotary/courtyard type of area, and almost directly across the center of that to the right, there are two paths on either side of the Demonstration Garden. I took the left path, and found the plant on the right side, a little ways down the path. Hopefully, it will be clear to whoever has to replicate my methods where this plant is.